Heavy Metal Pollution Monitoring in Vulnerable Ecosystems: A Case Study of the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria

  • K. A. Bawa-Allah
  • J. K. Saliu
  • A. A. Otitoloju


This comparative analysis was carried out to monitor heavy metal concentrations in the Lagos Lagoon over the last 2 decades. Surface water and sediment samples were collected from stations on the Lagos Lagoon based on their suitability for comparative analysis and future monitoring. Heavy metal content in samples was determined using Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). The concentrations in the samples were compared to those obtained by Don-Pedro et al. (West African Journal of Applied Ecology 5:103–114, 2004) in previous studies from the same sampling zones. Results show that concentration of most heavy metals analysed has reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in the past 2 decades. However, the concentration of Cadmium (Cd) was found to have increased significantly (p < 0.05) over the same period. Increased concentration of Cadmium poses a threat to ecosystem health thus, it is imperative that safe limits for heavy metal discharge in waste streams should be revised and implemented.


Cadmium Comparative analysis Non-biodegradable Sediment Surface water 



The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. A. Bawa-Allah
    • 1
  • J. K. Saliu
    • 1
  • A. A. Otitoloju
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecotoxicology and Conservation Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of LagosLagosNigeria

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