Bio-monitoring of Tissue Accumulation and Genotoxic Effect of Heavy Metals in Cyprinus carpio from River Kabul Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan



The study explored (I) the concentration of heavy metals in water samples (II) their bioaccumulation in common carp Cyprinus carpio (III) and the subsequent genotoxicity in the selected organs of carp; from river Kabul, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Except for Mercury (Hg) the water samples had all the heavy metals within permissible limits of recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Nonetheless a number of heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb and Hg) showed bioaccumulation at levels higher than permissible. Zinc (Zn) was the most while Cadmium (Cd) was the least accumulated metal in all tissue samples analyzed. The metal burden in different organs of C. carpio was in sequence of intestine > skin > liver > gills > muscle. The Comet assay established DNA damage in selected organs to be in accordance with metal burden; the most to least damage being in sequence of blood > intestine > skin > liver > gills > muscle. In conclusion assessment of DNA damage in the organs of C. carpio appears to be a useful bio-marker to evaluate genotoxic effects of heavy metal pollution.


Tissue accumulation Heavy metals Genotoxicity Cyprinus carpio River Kabul 



The authors acknowledge the University of Peshawar for providing the research facilities. We are also thankful to those fishermen who helped us in collecting the fish samples.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of GujratGujrat CityPakistan

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