Table 2 Distribution of study variables and associated risks for deliberate self-harm, stratified by age group and by sex

From: Deliberate self-harm and associated risk factors in young adults: the importance of education attainment and sick leave

  Analysis by age group    Analysis by sex   
N (Case/control) Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI)   N (Case/control) Adjusted Odds ratios (95% CI)  
18–24 years 25–35 years 18–24 years 25–35 years Interaction Male Female Male Female Interaction
Education           
Tertiary 109/10,447 566/36,793 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 82.87** 171/18,628 504/28,612 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 39.10**
Secondary 1052/40,016 1337/30,181 2.82 (2.30–3.47) 2.41 (2.18–2.68)   970/34,409 1419/35,788 2.92 (2.46–3.45) 2.31 (2.11–2.53)  
Primary 3694/40,166 2648/17,622 11.00 (8.99–13.45) 6.17 (5.59–6.81)   3154/27,166 3188/30,622 10.24 (8.71–12.04) 7.44 (6.82–8.12)  
Unknown 193/3855 274/6012 8.25 (6.35–10.73) 3.81 (3.19–4.56)   211/4837 256/5030 8.25 (6.51–10.45) 4.96 (4.30–5.71)  
Income           
≥ 4G 366/8965 1389/51,383 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 83.43** 980/36,379 775/23,969 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 47.56**
3G 527/8331 988/12,672 1.32 (1.14–1.53) 2.08 (1.90–2.28)   665/8445 850/12,558 2.30 (2.06–2.57) 1.90 (1.76–2.05)  
< 3G 4111/75,539 2382/24,309 1.76 (1.56–2.00) 3.54 (3.28–3.83)   2816/38,368 3677/61,480 3.55 (3.24–3.89) 2.86 (2.68–3.06)  
Not registered 44/1649 66/2244 1.01 (0.72–1.42) 1.78 (1.36–2.33)   45/1848 65/2045 1.82 (1.31–2.53) 1.59 (1.29–1.97)  
Marital status           
Married 97/2516 564/25,743 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 8.08* 191/11,625 470/16,634 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 7.10*
Never married 4911/91,805 3759/61,498 1.65 (1.32–2.06) 2.34 (2.12–2.59)   4151/72,195 4519/81,108 2.46 (2.09–2.89) 2.26 (2.06–2.47)  
Previously married 40/163 502/3367 3.50 (2.25–5.42) 4.14 (3.62–4.74)   164/1220 378/2310 3.43 (2.71–4.35) 3.83 (3.37–4.36)  
Sick leave by cause           
No record 3618/81,134 1734/46,334 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 47.62** 2349/60,737 3003/66,731 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 40.93**
Current psychiatric 102/42 149/291 47.15 (31.75–70.02) 11.49 (9.00–14.67)   98/121 153/212 13.74 (9.92–19.03) 18.25 (14.97–22.25)  
Current other 443/1855 500/4258 4.26 (3.76–4.83) 3.27 (2.87–3.71)   428/1900 515/4213 5.29 (4.61–6.07) 3.90 (3.57–4.26)  
Prior psychiatric 84/177 625/2770 6.79 (5.05–9.13) 3.10 (2.74–3.50)   353/1324 356/1623 3.34 (2.85–3.92) 3.77 (3.38–4.21)  
Prior other 801/11,276 1817/36,955 1.28 (1.17–1.40) 1.16 (1.07–1.26)   1278/20,958 1340/27,273 1.41 (1.29–1.54) 1.28 (1.21–1.36)  
Sick leave spellsa           
3 or more 357/2206 1751/19,120 1.16 (1.01–1.34) 1.24 (1.14–1.35) 0.61 1026/7677 1082/13,649 1.42 (1.28–1.58) 1.16 (1.08–1.24) 29.48**
Immigrant status           
Norwegian 4445/81,958 4089/70,909 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 7.90** 4021/70,111 4513/82,756 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 39.98**
Immigrant 603/12,526 736/19,699 0.94 (0.84–1.06) 0.72 (0.61–0.84)   485/14,929 854/17,296 0.59 (0.51–0.69) 0.86 (0.78–0.94)  
Residential mobiltiy           
≤ 2 residential changes 2986/73,995 2315/58,279 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 29.30** 2418/62,091 2883/70,183 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference) 3.31
3–4 residential changes 1223/15,148 1330/23,266 1.68 (1.56–1.80) 1.35 (1.25–1.45)   1181/16,950 1372/21,464 1.62 (1.50–1.75) 1.53 (1.46–1.61)  
≥ 5 residential changes 839/5341 1180/9063 2.60 (2.38–2.85) 1.95 (1.80–2.12)   907/5999 1112/8405 2.41 (2.20–2.64) 2.28 (2.15–2.42)  
  1. Area of residence’ and ‘Parental death due to external causes’ is not included in table due to no significant interaction with age group and sex
  2. *Interaction test p value < 0.05, **Interaction test p value < 0.01
  3. aInternal comparison, ORs representing the added effect of respective variable for those with history of sick leave