Table 1 Distribution of study variables and associated risks for deliberate self-harm

From: Deliberate self-harm and associated risk factors in young adults: the importance of education attainment and sick leave

  Distribution, N (%) Risk factors for deliberate self-harm
Cases Controls Unadjusteda Adjustedb
1 (n = 9873) 0 (n = 185,092) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Education level     
Tertiary 675 (6.8) 47,240 (25.5) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Secondary 2389 (24.2) 70,197 (37.9) 2.83 (2.59–3.09) 2.31 (2.11–2.53)
Primary 6342 (64.2) 57,788 (31.2) 11.10 (10.22–12.07) 7.44 (6.82–8.12)
Unknown 467 (4.7) 9867 (5.3) 3.72 (3.30–4.20) 4.96 (4.30–5.71)
Income level     
≥ 4G 1755 (17.8) 60,348 (32.6) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
3G 1515 (15.3) 21,003 (11.3) 2.89 (2.69–3.11) 1.90 (1.76–2.05)
< 3G 6493 (65.8) 99,848 (53.9) 3.14 (2.95–3.34) 2.86 (2.68–3.06)
Not registered 110 (1.1) 3893 (2.1) 1.13 (0.93–1.38) 1.59 (1.29–1.97)
Marital status     
Married 661 (6.7) 28,259 (15.3) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Never married 8670 (87.8) 153,303 (82.8) 2.62 (2.41–2.85) 2.26 (2.06–2.47)
Previously married 542 (5.5) 3530 (1.9) 6.42 (5.70–7.23) 3.83 (3.37–4.36)
Sick leave     
No 5352 (54.2) 127,468 (68.9) 1.00 (Reference)
Yes 4521 (45.8) 57,624 (31.1) 2.22 (2.12–2.33)
Sick leave by cause     
No record 5352 (54.2) 127,468 (68.9) 1.00 (Reference)
Current psychiatric 251 (2.5) 333 (0.2) 18.25 (14.97–22.25)
Current other 943 (9.6) 6113 (3.3) 3.90 (3.57–4.26)
Prior psychiatric 709 (7.2) 2947 (1.6) 3.77 (3.38–4.21)
Prior other 2618 (26.5) 48,231 (26.1) 1.28 (1.21–1.36)
Sick leave spellsc     
3 or more 2108 (21.4) 21,326 (11.5) 1.16 (1.08–1.24)
Immigrant     
Norwegian 8534 (86.4) 152,867 (82.6) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Immigrant 1339 (13.6) 32,225 (17.4) 0.74 (0.69–0.78) 0.86 (0.78–0.94)
Area of residence     
Rural 8316 (84.2) 158,008 (85.4) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Central 1557 (15.8) 27,084 (14.6) 1.09 (1.03–1.16) 1.25 (1.18–1.32)
Residential mobility     
≤ 2 residential changes 5301 (53.7) 132,274 (71.5) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
3-4 residential changes 2553 (25.9) 38,414 (20.8) 1.72 (1.63–1.80) 1.53 (1.46–1.61)
≥5 residential changes 2019 (20.4) 14,404 (7.8) 3.65 (3.45–3.86) 2.28 (2.15–2.42)
Parental sudden death     
No record 8568 (86.8) 157,904 (85.3) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (Reference)
Suicide 156 (1.6) 925 (0.5) 3.10 (2.61–3.68) 2.08 (1.72–2.52)
Other causes 144 (1.5) 1309 (0.7) 2.04 (1.72–2.43) 1.40 (1.16–1.69)
No link 1005 (10.2) 24,954 (13.5) 0.73 (0.68–0.78) 0.86 (0.77–0.96)
  1. aCrude ORs were adjusted for age, gender and calendar time through matching
  2. bAdjusted ORs were further adjusted for all included variables
  3. cInternal comparison, ORs representing added effect of respective variable for those with a registered sick leave