The solubility of scheelite in evolved granitic magmas (Qz-Ab-Or-An system with minor FeOtotal, TiO2, and CaO added) was studied experimentally at 200 MPa, 750–850 °C and relatively oxidizing condition (logfO2 = NNO + 2.3, where NNO is Ni-NiO oxygen buffer). Water-saturated granitic melts have been equilibrated with seeds of scheelite crystals. The resulted WO3 contents in the melts vary only slightly from 0.21 to 0.32 wt.% WO3 over the investigated temperature and compositional range (0.7 to 1.4 wt.% CaO) but tends to increase with increasing temperature and decreasing CaO concentration. One important message conveyed from the study is that WO3 concentrations at scheelite saturation are more dependent on temperature in evolved Ca-poor melts than in Ca-rich melts. Natural granitic rocks associated with scheelite mineralization and associated melt inclusions hosted in quartz have much lower W contents than the experimental melts equilibrated with scheelite. This implies that enrichment of tungsten (W) at magmatic stages is not sufficient to produce significant scheelite mineralization and confirms the important role of W mobilization by magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in the formation of scheelite deposits.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Baker T, Pollard PJ, Mustard R, Markl G, Graham JL (2005) A comparison of granite-related tin, tungsten, and goldbismuth deposits: implications for exploration. SEG Newsl 61:5–17
Berndt J, Holtz F, Koepke J (2001) Experimental constraints on storage conditions in the chemically zoned phonolitic magma chamber of the Laacher See volcano. Contrib Mineral Petrol 140:469–486
Breiter K, Frýda J, Seltmann R, Thomas R (1997) Mineralogical evidence for two magmatic stages in the evolution of an extremely fractionated P-rich rare-metal granite: the Podlesí stock, Krušné Hory, Czech Republic. J Petrol 38:1723–1739
Breiter K, Förster HJ, Seltmann R (1999) Variscan silicic magmatism and related tin-tungsten mineralization in the Erzgebirge–Slavkovsky les metallogenic province. Mineral Deposita 34:505–521
Che XD, Linnen RL, Wang RC, Aseri A, Thibault Y (2013) Tungsten solubility in evolved granitic melts: an evaluation of magmatic wolframite. Geochem Cosmochim Acta 106:84–98
Derrey IT, Albrecht M, Dupliy E, Botcharnikov RE, Horn I, Junge M, Weyer S, Holtz F (2017) Experimental tests on achieving equilibrium in synthetic fluid inclusions: results for scheelite, molybdenite, and gold solubility at 800 °C and 200 MPa. Am Miner 102:275–283
Devine JD, Gardner JE, Brack HP, Layne GD, Rutherford MJ (1995) Comparison of microanalytical methods for estimating H2O contents of silicic volcanic glasses. Am Miner 80:319–328
Harlaux M, Mercadier J, Marignac C, Peiffert C, Cloquet C, Cuney M (2018) Tracing metal sources in peri-batholitic hydrothermal W deposits based on the chemical composition of wolframite: the example of the Variscan French Massif Central. Chem Geol 479:58–85
Heinrich C (1990) The chemistry of hydrothermal tin(-tungsten) ore deposition. Econ Geol 85:457–481
Holtz F, Behrens H, Dingwell DB, Johannes W (1995) Water solubility in haplogranitic melts. Compositional, pressure and temperature dependence. Am Miner 80:94–108
Huang LC, Jiang SY (2014) Highly fractionated S-type granites from the giant Dahutang tungsten deposit in Jiangnan Orogen, Southeast China: geochronology, petrogenesis and their relationship with W-mineralization. Lithos 202:207–226
Hulsbosch N, Boiron MC, Dewaele S, Muchez P (2016) Fluid fractionation of tungsten during granite–pegmatite differentiation and the metal source of peri-batholitic W quartz veins: evidence from the Karagwe-Ankole Belt (Rwanda). Geochem Cosmochim Acta 175:299–318
Jiang H, Jiang SY, Li WQ, Zhao KD, Peng NJ (2018) Highly fractionated jurassic i-type granites and related tungsten mineralization in the Shirenzhang deposit, northern Guangdong, South China: evidence from cassiterite and zirconU-Pb ages, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes. Lithos:S0024493718301579
Keppler H, Wyllie P (1991) Partitioning of Cu, Sn, Mo, W, U, and Th between melt and aqueous fluid in the systems haplogranite-H2O-HCl and haplogranite-H2O-HF. Contrib Mineral Petrol 109:139–150
King PL, Chappell BW, Allen CM, White AJR (2001) Are A-type granites the high temperature felsic granites? Evidence from fractionated granites of the Wangrah Suite. Aust J Earth Sci 48:501–514
Klimm K, Holtz F, Johannes W, King PL (2003) Fractionation of metaluminous A-type granites: an experimental study of the Wangrah Suite, Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia. Precam Res 124:327–341
Klimm K, Holtz F, King P (2008) Fractionation vs. magma mixing in the Wangrah Suite A-type granites, Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia: experimental constraints. Lithos 102:415–434
Lecumberri-Sanchez P, Vieira R, Heinrich CA, Pinto F, Wӓlle M (2017) Fluid-rock interaction is decisive for the formation of tungsten deposits. Geology 45:579–582
Linnen RL, Cuney M (2005) Granite-related rare-element deposits and experimental constraints on Ta–Nb–W–Sn–Zr–Hf mineralization. In Rare-Element Geochemistry and Mineral Deposits. GAC Short Course Notes, vol. 17 (eds. R. L. Linnen and I. M. Samson). Geological Association of Canada 45–67
Linnen RL, Keppler H (1997) Columbite solubility in granitic melts: consequences for the enrichment and fractionation of Nb and Ta in the Earth’s crust. Contrib Mineral Petrol 128:213–227
Manning DAC, Henderson P (1984) The behavior of tungsten in granitic melt–vapor systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 86:286–293
Matthews W, Linnen RL, Guo Q (2003) A filler-rod technique for controlling redox conditions in cold-seal pressure vessels. Am Miner 88(4):701–707
Newberry RJ, Swanson SE (1986) Scheelite skarn granitoids: an evaluation of the roles of magmatic source and process. Ore Geol Rev 1:57–81
Rickers K, Thomas R, Heinrich W (2006) The behavior of trace elements during the chemical evolution of the H2O-, B-, and F-rich granite–pegmatite–hydrothermal system at Ehrenfriedersdorf, Germany: a SXRF study of melt and fluid inclusions. Mineral Deposita 41:229–245
Wang RC, Fontan F, Chen XM, Hu H, Liu CS, Xu SJ, de Parseval P (2003) Accessory minerals in the Xihuashan Y-enriched granitic complex, southern China: a record of magmatic and hydrothermal stages of evolution. Can Miner 41:727–748
Webster J, Thomas R, Rhede D, Förster HJ, Seltmann R (1997) Melt inclusions in quartz from an evolved peraluminous pegmatite: geochemical evidence for strong tin enrichment in fluorine-rich and phosphorus-rich residual liquids. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:2589–2604
Webster J, Thomas R, Förster HJ, Seltmann R, Tappen C (2004) Geochemical evolution of halogen-enriched granite magmas and mineralizing fluids of the Zinnwald tin-tungsten mining district, Erzgebirge, Germany. Mineral Deposita 39:452–472
Wilke S, Holtz F, Almeev R, Neave D (2017) The effect of anorthite content and water on quartz feldspar-cotectic composition ns in the rhyolitic system and implications for geobarometry. J Petrol 58:789–818
Wood SA, Samson IM (2000) The hydrothermal geochemistry of tungsten in granitoid environments: I. relative solubilities of ferberite and scheelite as a function of T, P, pH, and mNaCl. Econ Geol 95:143–182
Wu M, Samson IM, Zhang D (2017) Textural and chemical constraints on the formation of disseminated granite-hosted W-Ta-Nb mineralization at the Dajishan deposit, Nanling Range, Southeastern China. Econ Geol 112:855–887
Zajacz Z, Halter WE, Pettke T, Guillong M (2008) Determination of fluid/melt partition coefficients by LAICPMS analysis of co-existing fluid and silicate melt inclusions: controls on element partitioning. Geochem Cosmochim Acta 72:2169–2197
Zhang Y, Yang JH, Chen JY, Wang H, Xiang YX (2017) Petrogenesis of Jurassic tungsten-bearing granites in the Nanling Range, South China: evidence from whole-rock geochemistry and zircon U–Pb and Hf–O isotopes. Lithos 278:166–180
We are grateful to Julian Feige for his help with sample preparation and to Renat Almeev for assistance during microprobe analysis.
J. D. was supported by the Major Research Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC Project; 91855217). M.W. and T.H. were supported by 2016FC0600502 and China Nature Foundation of Sciences (41761134086; 41922012), MOST Special Fund from the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences (MSFGPMR201804 and MSFGPMR201809) and 111 Project (B18048). X. L was supported by the DREAM project of MOST, China (2016YFC0600408).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Editorial handling: R. Linnen
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, M., Deng, J., Hou, T. et al. Experimental evidence for a protracted enrichment of tungsten in evolving granitic melts: implications for scheelite mineralization. Miner Deposita 55, 1299–1306 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-019-00932-1
- Protracted enrichment