Timing of sediment-hosted Cu-Ag mineralization in the Trans-Hudson orogen at Janice Lake, Wollaston Domain, Saskatchewan, Canada

  • José Perelló
  • Víctor A. Valencia
  • Paula Cornejo
  • John Clifford
  • Alan J. Wilson
  • Greg Collins


The Janice Lake Cu-Ag mineralization in the Wollaston Domain of northern Saskatchewan is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence in the upper part of the Wollaston Supergroup of the Trans-Hudson orogen. The Wollaston Supergroup was deposited between ~ 2070 and 1865 Ma in a foreland basin setting constructed over Archean basement of the Hearne craton. The Trans-Hudson orogen underwent final collision and peak metamorphism at ~ 1810 Ma, during consolidation of Laurentia and its amalgamation with the Columbia supercontinent. Titanite is a common constituent of the post-peak metamorphic assemblages of Trans-Hudson lithotectonic units and accompanied disseminated sediment-hosted Cu sulfide mineralization at Janice Lake. Titanite crystals, intergrown with chalcocite over a strike-length of ~ 2 km of Cu-bearing stratigraphy, were dated by the ID-TIMS and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb methods, returning an age range from 1780 to 1760 Ma and a weighted average age of 1775 ± 10 Ma. The titanite ages effectively date the associated chalcocite-dominated sediment-hosted Cu-Ag mineralization and its formation during initial post-orogenic uplift and cooling, ~ 30 myr after peak metamorphism. The age-range and tectonic setting of the Janice Lake mineralization confirms that sediment-hosted Cu mineralization was an integral part of the metallogenic endowment of Columbia and that its emplacement coincided with the continental-scale Trans-Hudson orogeny rather than with diagenesis and extensional basin development ~ 100 myr earlier.


Sediment-hosted Cu mineralization Trans-Hudson orogen Wollaston Supergroup Janice Lake Titanite ages Post-peak metamorphism 



We thank Natalie Thompson for her assistance during work at the core library of the Saskatchewan Precambrian Geological Laboratory, La Ronge, Saskatchewan, Terry Blackburn for assistance with ID-TIMS dating, and Héctor Poblete for figure drafting. Antofagasta Minerals S.A. funded the analytical work and Transition Metals Corporation provided in-kind support at La Ronge. The manuscript benefited from reviews by Richard Sillitoe and Thomas Hart. Gary Delaney and Armin Zeh conducted formal reviews on behalf of Mineralium Deposita.

Supplementary material

126_2018_806_MOESM1_ESM.docx (130 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 130 kb)
126_2018_806_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (219 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 219 kb)
126_2018_806_MOESM3_ESM.docx (31 kb)
ESM 3 (DOCX 31 kb)
126_2018_806_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (29 kb)
ESM 4 (XLSX 29 kb)
126_2018_806_MOESM5_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 5 (DOCX 20 kb)
126_2018_806_MOESM6_ESM.xlsx (14 kb)
ESM 6 (XLSX 13 kb)


  1. Aleinikoff JN, Wintsch RP, Tollo RP, Unruh DM, Fanning CM, Schmitz MD (2007) Ages and origins of rocks of the Killingworth dome, south-central Connecticut: implications for the tectonic evolution of southern New England. Am J Sci 307:63–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandre P, Kyser K, Thomas D, Polito P, Marlat J (2009) Geochronology of unconformity-related uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada and their integration in the evolution of the basin. Mineral Deposita 44:41–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annesley IR, Madore C, Krog TE (1992) U-Pb geochronology of some granitoids from the Peter Lake Domain. Saskatchewan Geol Surv, Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Summary of Investigations 1992, Miscellaneous Report 92-4, pp. 168–171Google Scholar
  4. Annesley IR, Madore C, Chen YD, Krogh TE (1995) Additional geochronological constraints on the age of the calc-alkaline granitoid plutonism in the Wollaston Lake area, Wollaston Domain, northern Saskatchewan. Geological Association of Canada/ Mineralogical Association of Canada, Program with Abstracts 20, A3Google Scholar
  5. Annesley IR, Madore C, Portella P (2005) Geology and thermotectonic evolution of the western margin of the Trans-Hudson Orogen: evidence from the eastern sub-Athabasca basement, Saskatchewan. Can J Earth Sci 42:573–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ansdell KM (2005) Tectonic evolution of the Manitoba–Saskatchewan segment of the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, Canada. Can J Earth Sci 42:741–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ansdell KM, MacNeill A, Delaney GD, Hamilton MA (2000) Rifeting and development of the Hearne craton passive margin: age constraint from the Cook Lake area, Wollaston Domain, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Saskatchewan. GeoCanada 2000 Conference, Extended abstract #777 (CD-ROM)Google Scholar
  8. Aspler LB, Chiarenzelli JR, McNicoll VJ (2002) Paleoproterozoic basement-cover infolding and thick-skinned thrusting in Hearne domain, Nunavut, Canada: intracratonic response to Trans-Hudson orogeny. Precambrian Res 116:331–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bickford M, Mock T, Steinhart IIIW, Collerson K, Lewry J (2005) Origin of the Archean Sask craton and its extent within the Trans-Hudson Orogen: evidence from Pb and Nd isotopic compositions of basement rocks and post-orogenic intrusions. Can J Earth Sci 42:659–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Black LP, Kamo SL, Allen CM, Aleinikoff JN, Davis DW, Korsch RJ, Foudoulis C (2003) TEMORA 1: a new zircon standard for Phanerozoic U–Pb geochronology. Chem Geol 200:155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown AC (1981) The timing of mineralization in stratiform copper deposits. In: Wolf KH (ed) Handbook of strata-bound and stratiform ore deposits. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Part III, Volume 9, Chapter 1, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  12. Card CD, Pană D, Portella P, Thomas DJ, Annesley IR (2007) Basement rocks to the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan and Alberta. In: Jefferson CW, Delaney G (eds) EXTECH IV: Geology and Uranium Exploration TECHnology of the Proterozoic Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan and Alberta, Geol Surv Can Bull 588:69–87 (also Saskatchewan Geol Soc, Spec Publ 18; Geol Assoc Can Mineral Deposits Division, Spec Publ 4)Google Scholar
  13. Chakungal J, Reynolds P, Jamieson R, Corrigan D (2004) Slow post-orogenic cooling in a deeply eroded orogen: Reindeer Zone, Trans-Hudson orogen, Saskatchewan. Can J Earth Sci 41:867–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang Z, Vervoort JD, McClelland WC, Knaack C (2006) U-Pb dating of zircon by LA-ICP-MS. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 7(5):14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chiarenzelli J, Aspler L, Villeneuve M, Lewry JF (1998) Early Proterozoic evolution of the Saskatchewan craton and its allochthonous cover, Trans-Hudson Orogen. J Geol 106:247–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coombe W (1994) Sediment-hosted base metal deposits of the Wollaston Domain, Northern Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Report 213Google Scholar
  17. Corrigan D, Hajnal Z, Németh B, Lucas SB (2005) Tectonic framework of a Paleoproterozoic arc-continent to continent-continent collisional zone, Trans-Hudson Orogen, from geological and seismic reflection studies. Can J Earth Sci 42:421–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corrigan D, Galley AG, Pehrsson S (2007) Tectonic evolution and metallogeny of the southwestern Trans-Hudson orogen. In Goodfellow WD (ed.) Mineral deposits of Canada: a synthesis of major deposit-types, district metallogeny, the evolution of geological provinces, and exploration methods. Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication 5:881–902Google Scholar
  19. Corrigan D, Pehrsson S, Wodicka N, de Kemp E (2009) The palaeoproterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen: a prototype of modern accretionary processes. Geol Soc Lond, Spec Publ 327:457–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delaney GD (1994) Geological setting of sediment-hosted copper mineralization in the area southwest of Janice Lake, Wollaston Domain. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Summary of Investigations 1994, Miscellaneous Report 94-4, pp 53–62Google Scholar
  21. Delaney GD, Savage D (1998) Geological investigations of the context of quartzite-hosted Zn-Pb mineralization, Sito-Adams lakes area, Wollaston Domain (parts of NTS 74 A-4 and -5). Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Summary of Investigations 1998, Miscellaneous Report 98-4, pp 29–35Google Scholar
  22. Delaney GD, Maxeiner, RO, Rawsthorne ML, Reid J, Hartlaub R, Schwann P (1995) Geological setting of sediment-hosted copper mineralization in the Janice Lake area, Wollaston Domain. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Summary of Investigations 1995, Miscellaneous Report 95-4, pp 30–48Google Scholar
  23. Delaney GD, Jankovic Z, MacNeil A, McGowan J, Tisdale D (1997) Geological investigations of the Courtenay Lake-Cairns Lake Fold Belt and the Hills Lake embayment, Johnson River inlier, Wollaston Domain, Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Summary of Investigations 1997, Miscellaneous Report 97-4, pp 90–101Google Scholar
  24. Dickinson WR, Gehrels GE (2009) Use of U-Pb ages of detrital zircons to infer maximum depositional ages of strata: a test against a Colorado Plateau Mesozoic database. Earth Planet Sci Lett 288:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Durocher KE, Kyser TK, Delaney GD (2001) Thermotectonic studies in the Paleoproterozoic Glennie domain, Trans-Hudson orogen, Canada. Precambrian Res 109:175–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fedorowich JS, Stauffer MR, Kerrich R, Lewry JF (2003) Thermochronology of the Needle Falls Shear Zone: a post-collisional high-strain zone of the trans-Hudson Orogen. Can J Earth Sci 40:1009–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fetter J (2013) Bedrock geology of the northern Janice Lake and Burbidge Lake areas, Wollaston Domain (parts of NTS 54A14 and 74A15). Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Saskatchewan Ministry of the Economy, Summary of Investigations 2013, v. 2, Miscellaneous Report 2013-4.2, Paper A-5, 18 ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaschnig RM, Vervoort JD, Lewis RS, McClelland WC (2010) Migrating magmatism in the northern US Cordillera: in situ U–Pb geochronology of the Idaho batholith. Contrib Mineral Petrol 159:863–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gehrels G, Valencia VA, Pullen A (2006) Detrital zircon geochronology by laser-ablation multicollector ICPMS at the Arizona LaserChron center. In: Olszewski TD (ed) Geochronology Emerging Opportunities. Paleontological Society 12:67–76Google Scholar
  30. Hitzman M, Kirkham R, Broughton D, Thorson J, Selley D (2005) The sediment-hosted stratiform copper ore system. In: Hedenquist JW, Thompson JFH, Goldfarb RJ, Richards JP (eds) Economic geology one hundredth anniversary volume 1905–2005. Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton, pp 609–642Google Scholar
  31. Hitzman MW, Selley D, Bull S (2010) Formation of sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits through earth history. Econ Geol 105:627–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hitzman MW, Broughton D, Selley D, Woodhead J, Wood D, Bull S (2012) The Central African Copperbelt: diverse stratigraphic, structural, and temporal settings in the world’s largest sedimentary copper district. In: Hedenquist JW, Harris M, Camus F (eds) Geology and genesis of major copper deposits and districts of the world: a tribute to Richard H. Sillitoe: Society of Economic Geologits special Publication 16:487–514Google Scholar
  33. Hoffman PF (1981) Autopsy of the Athapuscow aulacogen: a failed arm affected by three collisions. In: Campbell FHA (ed) Proterozoic basins of Canada. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 81–10, pp 97–102Google Scholar
  34. Hoffman PF (1988) United plates of America, the birth of a craton: Early Proterozoic assembly and growth of Laurentia. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 16:543–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huang X-W, Zhao X-F, Qi L, Zhou M-F (2013) Re-Os and S isotopic constraints on the origins of two mineralization events at the Tangdan sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform Cu deposit, SW China. Chem Geol 347:9–19Google Scholar
  36. Jaffey AH, Flynn KF, Glendenin LE, Bentley WC, Essling AM (1971) Precision measurements of half-lives and specific activities of 235U and 238U. Phys Rev C4:1889–1906Google Scholar
  37. Jeanneret P, Goncalves P, Durand C, Trap P, Marquer D, Quirt D, Ledru P (2016) Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the pre-Athabasca basement within the Wollaston–Mudjatik Transition Zone, Saskatchewan. Can J Earth Sci 53:231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kirkham RV (1974) A synopsis of Canadian stratiform copper deposits in sedimentary sequences. Centenaire de la Sociétè Géologique de Belgique. Gisements Stratiformes et Provinces Cupriefères, Liège, 1974, pp 367–382Google Scholar
  39. Lewry JF, Collerson KD (1987) The Trans-Hudson Orogen: extent, subdivision, and problems. In: Lewry JF, Stauffer MR (eds) The Early Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 37:1–14Google Scholar
  40. Lewry JF, Sibbald TII (1980) Thermotectonic evolution of the Churchill Province in northern Saskatchewan. Tectonophysics 68:45–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ludwig KR (2012) User’s manual for Isoplot 3.75: a geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center Spec Publ No. 5, 75 ppGoogle Scholar
  42. MacNeil A, Delaney GD, Ansdell K (1997) Geology of the Courtney Lake Formation in the Cook Lake area, Wollaston Domain, northern Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Summary of Investigations 1997, Miscellaneous Report 97-4, pp. 115–120Google Scholar
  43. Maxeiner RO, Gilboy CF, Yeo GM (1999) Classification of metamorphosed clastic sedimentary rocks: a proposal. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Miscellaneous Report 1999–41, pp. 89–91Google Scholar
  44. McGowan J, Delaney GD, Ansdell K (1997) The Jansem 2 Cu-Au showing, Janice Lake area, Wollaston Domain. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Miscellaneous Report 97-4, pp. 121–124Google Scholar
  45. McKechnie CL, Annesley IR, Ansdell KM (2013) Geological setting, petrology, and geochemistry of granitic pegmatites and leucogranites hosting U-Th-REE mineralization at Fraser Lakes Zone B, Wollaston Domain, Northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Explor Min Geol 21:1–26Google Scholar
  46. Meyer MT, Bickford ME, Lewry JF (1992) The Wathaman Batholith: an Early Proterozoic continental arc in the Trans-Hudson Orogenic Belt, Canada. Geol Soc Am Bull 104:1073–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Money PL (1966) The geology of the Daly Lake area (east half), Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Miscellaneous Report 108, 48 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. Money PL (1968) The Wollaston Lake fold-belt system, Saskatchewan–Manitoba. Can J Earth Sci 5:1489–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Muchez P, André-Mayer A-S, El Desouky EL, Reisberg L (2015) Diagenetic origin of the stratiform Cu-Co deposit at Kamoto in the Central African Copperbelt. Mineral Deposita 50:437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paces JB, Miller JD Jr (1993) Precise U-Pb ages of Duluth Complex and related mafic intrusions, northeastern Minnesota: geochronological insights into physical, petrogenetic, paleomagnetic, and tectonomagmatic processes associated with the 1.1 Ga midcontinent rift system. J Geophys Res 98:13997–14013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Phersson SJ, Eglington BM, Evans DAD, Huston D, Reddy SM (2016) Metallogeny and its link to orogenic style during the Nuna supercontinent cycle. In: Li ZX, Evans DAD, Murphy JB (eds) Supercontinent cycles through earth history. Geological society of London Special Publication 424:83–94Google Scholar
  52. Perelló J, Clifford JA, Creaser RA, Valencia VA (2015) An example of synorogenic sediment-hosted copper mineralization: geologic and geochronologic evidence from the Paleoproterozoic Nussir deposit, Finnmark, Arctic Norway. Econ Geol 110:677–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Perelló J, Sillitoe RH, Yakubchuk AS, Valencia VA, Cornejo P (2017a) Age and tectonic setting of the Udokan sediment-hosted copper-silver deposit, Transbaikalia, Russia. Ore Geol Rev 86:856–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Perelló J, Cornejo P, Wilton DHC, Creaser RA, Winter L, Smith R (2017b) Grenvillian age for the sediment-hosted Cu-Ag mineralization at Seal Lake, Labrador, Canada. In Mineral Resources to Discover, SGA Biennial Meeting, 14th, Québec City, Proceedings, pp 1035–1038Google Scholar
  55. Rath U, Morton RD (1969) A base metal occurrence in the Wollaston Lake belt of northern Saskatchewan. Bull Can Inst Min Metall 62(689):961–966Google Scholar
  56. Ray GE (1981) Bedrock geology and geochemistry, Daly Lake (west) area and part of Middle Foster Lake area. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Saskatchewan Department Mineral Resources, Miscellaneous Report 208, 34 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Sangster DF, Kirkham RV (1974) Disseminated base metal mineralization along the Wollaston Lake fold belt, Saskatchewan. Geological survey of Canada Paper 74-1, Part A, pp 143–144Google Scholar
  58. Schmitz MD, Bowring SA (2003) Constraints on the thermal evolution of continental lithosphere from U-Pb accessory mineral thermochronometry of lower crustal xenoliths, southern Africa. Contrib Mineral Petrol 144:592–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schneider DA, Heizler MT, Bickford ME, Wortman GL, Condie KC, Perilli S (2007) Timing constraints of orogeny to cratonization: thermochronology of the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada. Precambrian Res 153:65–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schoene B, Crowley JL, Condon DJ, Schmitz MD, Bowring SA (2006) Reassessing the uranium decay constants for geochronology using ID-TIMS U–Pb data. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:426–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Scott BP (1973) The geology of the Pendleton Lake area (West Half) Saskatchewan. Department of Mineral Resources, Geological Science Branch, Precambrian Geology Division, Province of Saskatchewan, Report 154, 58 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Selley D, Broughton D, Scott R, Hitzman M, Bull S, Large R, McGoldrick P, Croaker M, Pollington N, Barra F (2005) A new look at the geology of the Zambian Copperbelt. In: Hedenquist JW, Thompson JFH, Goldfarb RJ, Richards JP (eds) Economic geology one hundredth anniversary volume 1905–2005. Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton, pp 965–1000Google Scholar
  63. Sillitoe RH, Perelló J, Creaser RA, Wilton J, Dawborn T (2015) Two ages of copper mineralization in the Mwombezhi dome, northwestern Zambia: metallogenic implications for the Central African Copperbelt. Econ Geol 110:1917–1923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sillitoe RH, Perelló J, Creaser RA, Wilton J, Wilson AJ, Dawborn T (2017) Age of the Zambian Copperbelt. Mineral Deposita 52:1245–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sircombe KN, Bleeker W, Stern RA (2001) Detrital zircon geochronology and grain-size analysis of a ~2800 Ma Mesoarchean proto-cratonic cover succession, Slave Province, Canada. Earth Planet Sci Lett 189:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sláma J, Košler J, Condon DJ, Crowley JL, Gerdes A, Hanchar JM, Horstwood MSA, Morris GA, Nasdala L, Norberg N, Schaltegger U, Schoene B, Tubrett MN, Whitehouse MJ (2008) Plešovice zircon—a new natural reference material for U-Pb and Hf isotopic microanalysis. Chem Geol 249:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stacey JT, Kramers JD (1975) Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage model. Earth Planet Sci Lett 26:207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stauffer MR (1984) Manikewan: an early Proterozoic ocean in central Canada, its igneous history and orogenic closure. Precambrian Res 25:257–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stockwell CH (1961) Structural provinces, orogenies and time classification of rocks of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. In: Lowdon JA (ed) Age determinations by the geological survey of Canada, report 2: isotopic ages. Geological survey of Canada Paper 61-17:108–118Google Scholar
  70. Tran HT (2001) Tectonic evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Wollaston Group in the Cree Lake Zone, Northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Regina, Regina, Canada, 458 ppGoogle Scholar
  71. Tran HT, Yeo GM (1997) Geology of the Burbidge Lake-northern Upper Foster Lake area, eastern Wollaston Domain (NTS 74A-14). Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Summary of Investigations 1997, Miscellaneous Report 97-4, pp 72–89Google Scholar
  72. Tran HT, Ansdell KM, Bethune KM, Watters BR, Ashton KE (2003) Nd isotope and geochemical constraints on the depositional setting of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks along the margin of the Archean Hearne craton, Saskatchewan, Canada. Precambrian Res 123:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tran HT, Ansdell KM, Bethune KM, Ashton K, Hamilton MA (2008) Provenance and tectonic setting of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks along the eastern margin of Hearne craton: constraints from SHRIMP geochronology, Wollaston Group, Saskatchewan, Canada. Precambrian Res 167:171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Valencia VA, Ruiz J, Barra F, Geherls G, Ducea M, Titley SR, Ochoa-Landin L (2005) U-Pb single zircon and Re-Os geochronology from La Caridad Porphyry Copper Deposit: insights for the duration of magmatism and mineralization in the Nacozari District, Sonora, Mexico. Mineral Deposita 40:175–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yeo GM, Delaney G (2007) The Wollaston Supergroup, stratigraphy and metallogeny of a Paleoproterozoic Wilson cycle in the Trans-Hudson orogen, Saskatchewan. In: Jefferson CW, Delaney G (eds) EXTECH IV: geology and uranium exploration TECHnology of the Proterozoic Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan and Alberta, Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 588:89–117 (also Sakatchewan Geological Survey Special Publication 18; Geological Association of Canada Mineral Deposits Division Special Publication 4)Google Scholar
  76. Zhang S, Li Z-X, Evans DAD, Wu H, Li H, Dong J (2012) Pre-Rodinia supercontinent Nuna shaping up: a global synthesis with new paleomagnetic results from North China. Earth Planet Sci Lett 353-354:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Antofagasta Minerals S.A.SantiagoChile
  2. 2.School of the EnvironmentWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  3. 3.Antofagasta Minerals CanadaTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Transition Metals CorporationSudburyCanada

Personalised recommendations