Genesis of copper-lead mineralization in the regionally zoned Agnigundala Sulfide Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

Article
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

Shallow marine sandstone-shale-carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Paleoproterozoic northern Cuddapah basin host copper (Nallakonda deposit), copper-lead (Dhukonda deposit), and lead mineralization (Bandalamottu deposit) which together constitute the Agnigundala Sulfide Belt. The Cu sulfide mineralization in sandstone is both stratabound and disseminated, and Pb sulfide mineralization occurs as stratabound fracture filling veins and/or replacement veins within dolomite. Systematic mineralogical and sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope studies of the three deposits indicate a common ore-fluid that deposited copper at Nallakonda, copper-lead at Dhukonda, and lead at Bandalamottu under progressive cooling during migration through sediments. The ore-fluid was of low temperature (< 200 °C) and oxidized. Thermochemical reduction of basinal water sulfate produced sulfide for ore deposition. It is envisaged that basal red-bed and evaporite-bearing rift-related continental to shallow marine sediments might have acted as the source for the metals. Rift-related faults developed during sedimentation in the basin might have punctured the ore-fluid pool in the lower sedimentary succession and also acted as conduits for their upward migration. The ore-bearing horizons have participated in deformations during basin inversion without any recognizable remobilization.

Keywords

Paleoproterozoic Cuddapah basin Agnigundala Sulfide Belt Cu-Pb sulfides 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The first author is grateful to Prof. Ross Large, Ex-Director of CODES, Tasmania University, Australia, for extending a visitorship and allowing him to utilize the laboratory facilities. He is also thankful to Dr. P. McGoldrick and Dr. S. Bull for their valuable discussions and suggestions. The first author also expresses sincere thanks to Christine Cook of Central Science Laboratory, University of Tasmania and Sarah Gilbert of CODES, University of Tasmania, for their help in C, O, and S isotopes and LA-ICP-MS data generation. The authors are thankful to Dr. M Fukuoka of Hiroshima University, Japan, for EPMA analysis. The authors express their sincere thanks to Dr. B. Lehmann, Editor-in-Chief, Mineralium Deposita, Dr. D. L. Huston, Geoscience Australia and Associate Editor, Mineralium Deposita, and the other anonymous reviewer for their painstaking reviews, which have definitely improved the clarity of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

126_2018_802_MOESM1_ESM.docx (451 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 451 kb)

References

  1. Annels AE (1989) Ore genesis in the Zambian copper belt, with particular reference to the northern sector of the Chambishi Basin. In: Boyle RW, Brown AC, Jefferson, CW, Jowett EC, Kirkham RV (eds) Sediment-hosted stratiform copper deposits. Geol Assoc Can Spec Pap 36:427–452Google Scholar
  2. Ault WV, Jensen ML (1963) Summary of sulfur isotope standards. In Jensen, M.L. (ed) Biochemistry of sulfur isotopes. National Science Foundation. Symposium Proceedings, Yale UniversityGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker AJ, Fallick AE (1989) Evidence from Lewisian limestones for isotopically heavy carbon in two-thousand-million-year-old sea water. Nature 337:352–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhattacharya HN, Bull S (2010) Tectono-sedimentary setting of the Paleoproterozoic Zawar Pb-Zn deposits, Rajasthan, India. Precambrian Res 177:323–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blake DH, Stewart AJ (1992) Stratigraphic and tectonic framework, Mount Isa Inlier. In: Stewart AJ, Blake DH (eds) Detailed studies of the Mount Isa Inlier. AGSO Bull 243:1–11Google Scholar
  6. Brown AC (1971) Zoning in the White Pine copper deposit, Ontonagon County, Michigan. Econ Geol 66:543–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown AC (1974) An epigenetic origin for stratiform Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides in the lower Nonesuch Shale, White Pine, Michigan. Econ Geol 69:271–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown AC (1978) Stratiform copper deposits—evidence for their post-sedimentary origin. Miner Sci Eng 10:172–181Google Scholar
  9. Chatterjee A, Bandopadhyay S, Bhattacharya HN (2000) Progressive development of structures in a ductile shear zone along a part of the eastern margin of Cuddapah basin, India. Indian J Earth Sci 27:33–39Google Scholar
  10. Chaudhuri AK, Saha D, Deb GK, Patranabis Deb S, Mukherjee MK, Ghosh G (2002) The Purana basins of southern cratonic province of India—a case for Mesoproterozoic fossil rifts. Gondwana Res 5:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collins AS, Patranabis-Deb S, Alexander E, Bertram CN, Falster GM, Gore RJ, Mackintosh J, Dhang PC, Saha D, Payne JL, Jourdan F, Bacḱe G, Halverson GP, Wade BP (2015) Detrital mineral age, radiogenic isotopic stratigraphy and tectonic significance of the Cuddapah Basin, India. Gondwana Res 28:1294–1309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooke DR, Bull W, Large RR, McGoldrick PJ (2000) The importance of oxidized brines for the formation of Australian Proterozoic stratiform sediment-hosted Pb-Zn (SEDEX) deposits. Econ Geol 95:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Craig H (1961) Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science 133:1702–1703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crawford AR, Compston W (1973) The age of the Cuddapah and Kurnool systems, South India. J Geol Soc Aust 19:453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Danyushevsky LV, Robinson P, Gilbert S, Norman M, Large R, Mc-Goldrick P, Shelley JMG (2011) A technique for routine quantitative multi-element analysis of sulfide minerals by laser ablation ICP–MS. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 11:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dickson T (1992) Carbonate mineralogy and chemistry. In: Tucker ME, Wright VP (eds) Carbonate sedimentology. Blackwell Science Ltd., Hong Kong, pp 284–313Google Scholar
  17. Evans AM (1993) Ore geology and industrial minerals an introduction, 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd., Singapore, p 389Google Scholar
  18. Garlick WG (1961) The syngenetic theory. In: Medelsohn F (ed) The geology of the northern Rhodesian Copper Belt. MacDonald, London, pp 146–162Google Scholar
  19. Goldhaber MB, Kaplan IR (1974) The sedimentary sulfur cycle. In: Goldberg EB (ed) The sea, vol 4. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Goldschmidt VM (1954) Geochemistry. Clarendon. 730 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Goodfellow WD (2004) Geology, genesis and exploration of SEDEX deposits, with emphasis on the Selwyn Basin, Canada. In: Deb M, Goodfellow WD (eds) Sediment-hosted lead-zinc sulfide deposits. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 24–99Google Scholar
  22. Hitzman MW, Kirkham R, Broughton D, Thorson J, Selley D (2005) The sediment-hosted stratiform copper ore system. In: Hedenquist JW, Thompson JFH, Goldfarb RJ, Richards JP (eds) Economic geology 100th anniversary volume. Society of Economic Geologists, Inc., Colorado, pp 609–642Google Scholar
  23. Hitzman MW, Selley D, Bull S (2010) Formation of sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits through earth history. Econ Geol 105:627–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoefs J (2009) Stable isotope geochemistry, 6th edn. Springer, Berlin 293 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Hudson JD (1977) Stable isotopes and limestone lithification. J Geol Soc Lond 133:637–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huston DL, Stevens B, Southgate PN, Muhling P, Wyborn L (2006) Australian Zn–Pb–Ag ore-forming systems: a review and analysis. Econ Geol 101:1117–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huston DL, Mernagh TP, Steffen G, Hagemann SG, Doublier MP, Fiorentini M, Champion DC, Jaques AL, Czarnota K, Cayley R, Skirroe R, Bastrakov E (2016) Tectono-metallogenic systems—the place of mineral systems within tectonic evolution, with an emphasis on Australian examples. Ore Geol Rev 76:168–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kaila KL, Tewari HC (1982) Structure and tectonics of the Cuddapah basin in the light of DSS studies. In: Bhattacharji S, Balakrishna S (eds) Evolution of the Intracratonic Cuddapah Basin. Institution of Indian Peninsular Geology Monograph 2, Hyderabad, pp 53–62Google Scholar
  29. Kaila KL, Tewari HC (1985) Structural trends in the Cuddapah Basin from deep seismic sounding and their tectonic implication. Tectonophys 115:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaila KL, Roy Chowdhury K, Reddy PK, Krishna VK, Narain M, Sublotin SI, Sollogub VB, Chekhunov AV, Kharetchko TV (1979) Crustal structure along the Kavali Udipi profile in the Indian peninsular shield from deep seismic sounding. J Geol Soc India 20:307–333Google Scholar
  31. Kirkham RV (1989) Distribution, settings and genesis of sediment-hosted stratiform copper deposits. Geol Assoc of Can Spec Pap 36:3–38Google Scholar
  32. Kiyosu Y, Krouse HR (1990) The role of organic acid in the abiogenic reduction of sulfate and the sulfur isotope effect. Geochim J 24:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Klein GV (1975) Paleotidal range sequence, Middle Member, Wood Canyon Formation (Late Precambrian), eastern California and western Nevada. In: Ginsburg RN (ed) Tidal deposits. Springer, New York, pp 171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kucha H (1985) Felspar, clay, organic and carbonate receptors of heavy metals in Zechstein deposits (Kupferschiefer type), Poland. Tran Inst Min Metall Sect B Appl Earth Sci:133–146Google Scholar
  35. Kucha H, Pawlikowski M (1986) Two-brine model of the genesis of strata-bound Zechstein deposits (Kupferschiefer type), Poland. Mineral Deposita 21:70–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lakshminarayana G, Bhattacharjee S, Ramanaidu KV (2001) Sedimentation and stratigraphic framework in the Cuddapah basin. Geol Surv India Spec Publ 55:31–58Google Scholar
  37. Large RR, Bull SW, Winefield PR (2001) Carbon and oxygen isotope halo in carbonates related to the McArthur River (HYC) Zn-Pb-Ag deposit; implications for sedimentation, ore genesis and mineral exploration. Econ Geol 96:1567–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Large RR, Bull S, Selley D, Yang J, Cooke D, Garven G, McGoldrick P (2002) Controls on the formation of giant stratiform sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag deposits: with particular reference to the north Australian Proterozoic. In: Cooke DR, Pongratz J (eds) Giant ore deposits: characteristics, genesis and exploration. CODES spec Publ 4, pp 107–149Google Scholar
  39. Large R, McGoldrick P, Bull S, Cooke D (2004) Proterozoic stratiform sediment-hosted zinc-lead-silver deposits of northern Australia. In: Deb M, Goodfellow WD (eds) Sediment-hosted lead zinc sulfide deposits. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  40. Large RR, Bull SW, McGoldrick PJ, Walters S (2005) Stratiform and strata-bound Zn-Pb-Ag deposits in Proterozoic sedimentary basins, northern Australia. Ecron Geol 100th Anniversary Volume, pp 931–963Google Scholar
  41. Leach DL, Sangster DF, Kelley KD, Large RR, Garven G, Allen C, Gutzmer J, Walters S (2005) Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits: a global perspective. In: Hedenquist JW, Thompson JFH, Goldfarb RJ, Richards JP (eds) Econ Geol 100th Anniversary Volume, pp 561–607Google Scholar
  42. Leutwein F (1972) Selenium. In: Wedepohl H (ed) Handbook of geochemistry. Springer, New York 34-B-!-34-O-1Google Scholar
  43. Lydon JW (2004) Genetic models for Sullivan and other SEDEX deposits. In: Deb M, Goodfellow WD (eds) Sediment-hosted lead-zinc sulfide deposits. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 149–190Google Scholar
  44. Machel HG (1987) Saddle dolomite as a by-product of chemical compaction and thermochemical sulfate reduction. Geology 15:936–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Machel HG, Krouse HR, Sassen R (1995) Products and distinguishing criteria of bacterial and thermochemical sulfate reduction. Appl Geochem 10:373–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Maslennikov VV, Maslennikova SP, Large RR, Danyushevsky LV (2009) Study of trace element zonation in vent chimneys from the Silurian Yaman-Kasy volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit (Southern Urals, Russia) using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Econ Geol 104:1111–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCrea JM (1950) On the isotopic chemistry of carbonates and paleotemperature scale. J Chem Phys 18:844–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McGoldrick PJ, Keays RR (1990) Mount Isa copper and lead-zinc-silver ores: coincidence or cogenesis? Econ Geol 85:641–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McGowan RR, Roberts S, Foster RP, Boyce AJ, Coller D (2003) Origin of the copper-cobalt deposits of the Zambian Copper Belt: an epigenetic view from Nchanga. Geology 31:497–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McGowan RR, Roberts S, Boyce AJ (2006) Origin of the Nchanga copper-cobalt deposits of the Zambian Copper Belt. Mineral Deposita 40:617–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Meijerink AMJ, Rao DP, Rupke J (1984) Stratigraphic and structural development of the Precambrian Cuddapah Basin, SE India. Precambrian Res 26:57–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mishra B (1985) Ore petrology and geochemistry of three Proterozoic carbonate-hosted sulfide deposits from India. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 364 ppGoogle Scholar
  53. Mishra B, Mookherjee A (1982) Preliminary studies on fluid inclusion geothermometry of quartz-sulfide veins from Zawar area, Rajasthan, using a heating stage with kanthol strips. Proc National workshop on fluid inclusion studies in minerals, IIT, Bombay, pp 20–30Google Scholar
  54. Nagaraja Rao BK, Rajurkar ST, Ramalingaswamy G, Ravindra Babu B (1987) Stratigraphy, structure and evolution of the Cuddapah basin. Geol Soc India Mem 6:33–86Google Scholar
  55. Narayanswami S (1966) Tectonics of the Cuddapah basin. J Geol Soc India 7:33–50Google Scholar
  56. Nielsen P, Swennen R, Keppens E (1994) Multiple-step recrystallization within massive ancient dolomite units: an example from the Dinantian of Belgium. Sedimentology 41:567–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Dea MG, Lister GS (1997) Geodynamic evolution of the Proterozoic Mount Isa terrain, orogeny through time. In: Burg JP, Ford M (eds) Geol Soc Spec Publ 121:99–102Google Scholar
  58. Ohmoto H (1986) Stable isotope geochemistry of ore deposits. In: Valley JW, Taylor HP, O’Neil JR (eds) Stable isotopes in high temperature geological processes. Rev in Mineral 16:491–559Google Scholar
  59. Oszczepalski S (1999) Origin of the Kupferschiefer polymetallic mineralization in Poland. Mineral Deposita 34:599–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Phansalkar VG, Kale AS, Karmalkar NR, Kale VS (1991) An unusual evaporate association from the Papaghni Group, Cuddapah Basin. J Geol Soc India 37:75–79Google Scholar
  61. Piranjo F (2000) Ore deposits and mantle plume. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, p 556Google Scholar
  62. Plimer IR (1986) Sediment-hosted exhalative Pb-Zn deposits; products of contrasting ensialic rifting. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 89:57–73Google Scholar
  63. Plumb KA, Ahmad M, Wygralak AS, (1990) Mid-Proterozoic basins of the North Australian Craton-regional geology and mineralisation. In: Hughes FE (ed) Geology of the mineral deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea, Melbourne. Aust Inst Min Metall 881–902Google Scholar
  64. Prothero DR, Schwab F (1997) An introduction to sedimentary rocks and stratigraphy. W.H. Freeman, 575 ppGoogle Scholar
  65. Richardson CK, Rye RO, Wasserman MD (1998) The chemical and thermal evolution of the fluids in the cave-in-rock fluorspar district, Illinois: stable isotope systematics at the Deardroff mine. Econ Geol 83:765–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Robinson BW, Kusakabe M (1975) Quantitative preparation of SO2 for 34S/32S analyses, from sulfides by combustion with cuprous oxide. Anal Chem 47:1179–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rose AW (1976) The effect of cuprous chloride complexes in the origin of red bed copper and related deposits. Econ Geol 71:1036–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rye RO, Ohmoto H (1974) Sulfur and carbon isotopes and ore genesis: a review. Econ Geol 69:826–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Saha D (2002) Multi stage deformation in the Nallamalai Fold Belt, Cuddapah Basin, South India—implications for Mesoproterozoic tectonism along the south-eastern margin of India. Gondwana Res 5:701–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Saha D, Chakraborty S (2003) Deformation pattern in the Kurnool and Nallamalai Groups in the north-eastern parts (Palnad area) of the Cuddapah basin, South India and its implications on Rodinia/Gondwana tectonics. Gondwana Res 6:573–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sarkar SC, Gupta A (2012) Crustal evolution and metallogeny in India. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 840Google Scholar
  72. Sawkins FJ (1989) Anorogenic felsic magmatism, rift sedimentation and giant Proterozoic Pb-Zn deposits. Geology 17:657–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Selley RC (2000) Applied sedimentology, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego 523 ppGoogle Scholar
  74. Selley D, Broughton D, Scott R, Hitzman M, Bull S, Large R, McGoldrick P, Croaker M, Pollington N, Barra F (2005) A new look at the geology of the Zambian copper belt. Econ Geol 100th Anniversary Volume, pp 965–1000Google Scholar
  75. Sivadas KM, Sashikumar KT, Subba Rao N, Setti DN, Rajurkar ST, Sharma RK, Gopalkrishnan KP, Sagar AK, Ziauddin M, Murthy YG, Narayanswamy S (1985) Lead and copper deposits of the Agnigundala mineralized belt, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. Geol Surv India Mem 118:102Google Scholar
  76. Smith TM, Dorobek SL (1993) Alteration of early-formed dolomite during shallow to deep burial: Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation, central to south-western Montana. Geol Soc Am Bull 105:1389–1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stanton RL (1972) Ore petrology. McGraw-Hill, New York 713 pp Google Scholar
  78. Sweeney MA, Turner P, Vaughan DJ (1986) Stable isotope and geochemical studies of the role of early diagenesis in ore formation, Konkola Basin, Zambian Copper belt. Econ Geol 81:1836–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Taylor HP (1997) Oxygen and hydrogen isotope relationships in hydrothermal mineral deposits. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits. Wiley, New York, pp 229–302Google Scholar
  80. Unrug R (1988) Mineralization controls and source of metals in the Lufilian fold belt, Shaba (Zaire), Zambia, and Angola. Econ Geol 83:1247–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Urey HC (1947) The thermodynamic properties of isotopic substances. J Chem Soc (London), Part I 0:562–581Google Scholar
  82. Veizer J, Hoefs J (1976) The nature of 18O/16O and 13C/12C secular trends in sedimentary carbonate rocks. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40:1387–1395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Volodin RN, Chchetkin VS, Bogdanov Yu V, Narkelyun LF, Trubachev AI (1994) The Udokan cupriferous sandstone deposit (eastern Siberia). Geol Ore Deposits 36:1–25Google Scholar
  84. Warren JK (2000) Evaporites, brines and base metals: low-temperature ore emplacement controlled by evaporite diagenesis. Aust J Earth Sci 30:179–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zheng YF, Hoefs J (1990) Carbon and oxygen isotopic covariations in hydrothermal calcites, theoretical modeling on mixing processes and application to Pb-Zn deposits in the Harz Mountains, Germany. Mineral Deposita 28:79–89Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Techno India UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyHooghly Mohsin CollegeHooghlyIndia

Personalised recommendations