Genesis of copper-lead mineralization in the regionally zoned Agnigundala Sulfide Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

  • H. N. Bhattacharya
  • Sandip Bandyopadhyay


Shallow marine sandstone-shale-carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Paleoproterozoic northern Cuddapah basin host copper (Nallakonda deposit), copper-lead (Dhukonda deposit), and lead mineralization (Bandalamottu deposit) which together constitute the Agnigundala Sulfide Belt. The Cu sulfide mineralization in sandstone is both stratabound and disseminated, and Pb sulfide mineralization occurs as stratabound fracture filling veins and/or replacement veins within dolomite. Systematic mineralogical and sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope studies of the three deposits indicate a common ore-fluid that deposited copper at Nallakonda, copper-lead at Dhukonda, and lead at Bandalamottu under progressive cooling during migration through sediments. The ore-fluid was of low temperature (< 200 °C) and oxidized. Thermochemical reduction of basinal water sulfate produced sulfide for ore deposition. It is envisaged that basal red-bed and evaporite-bearing rift-related continental to shallow marine sediments might have acted as the source for the metals. Rift-related faults developed during sedimentation in the basin might have punctured the ore-fluid pool in the lower sedimentary succession and also acted as conduits for their upward migration. The ore-bearing horizons have participated in deformations during basin inversion without any recognizable remobilization.


Paleoproterozoic Cuddapah basin Agnigundala Sulfide Belt Cu-Pb sulfides 



The first author is grateful to Prof. Ross Large, Ex-Director of CODES, Tasmania University, Australia, for extending a visitorship and allowing him to utilize the laboratory facilities. He is also thankful to Dr. P. McGoldrick and Dr. S. Bull for their valuable discussions and suggestions. The first author also expresses sincere thanks to Christine Cook of Central Science Laboratory, University of Tasmania and Sarah Gilbert of CODES, University of Tasmania, for their help in C, O, and S isotopes and LA-ICP-MS data generation. The authors are thankful to Dr. M Fukuoka of Hiroshima University, Japan, for EPMA analysis. The authors express their sincere thanks to Dr. B. Lehmann, Editor-in-Chief, Mineralium Deposita, Dr. D. L. Huston, Geoscience Australia and Associate Editor, Mineralium Deposita, and the other anonymous reviewer for their painstaking reviews, which have definitely improved the clarity of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Techno India UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyHooghly Mohsin CollegeHooghlyIndia

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