Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 377–397 | Cite as

The genesis of the Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: constraints from mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and multiple isotope (H, O, S, Mo, Pb) studies

  • Degao Zhai
  • Jiajun Liu
  • Stylianos Tombros
  • Anthony E. Williams-Jones


The Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Great Hinggan Range Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic metallogenic province of NE China, in which the Mo-bearing quartz veins are hosted in approximately coeval granites and porphyries. The deposit contains more than 100 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.13 wt.% Mo. This well-preserved magmatic-hydrothermal system provides an excellent opportunity to determine the source of the molybdenum, the evolution of the hydrothermal fluids and the controls on molybdenite precipitation in a potentially important but poorly understood metallogenic province. Studies of fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins demonstrate that the Hashitu hydrothermal system evolved to progressively lower pressure and temperature. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion analyses and physicochemical calculations suggest that molybdenite deposition occurred at a temperature of 285 to 325 °C, a pressure from 80 to 230 bars, a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, and a ∆log fO2 (HM) of −3.0, respectively. Results of multiple isotope (O, H, S, Mo, and Pb) analyses are consistent in indicating a genetic relationship between the ore-forming fluids, metals, and the Mesozoic granitic magmatism (i.e., δ 18OH2O from +1.9 to +9.7‰, δDH2O from −106 to −87‰, δ 34SH2S from +0.3 to +3.9‰, δ 98/95Mo from 0 to +0.37‰, 206Pb/204Pb from 18.2579 to 18.8958, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.5384 to 15.5783, and 208Pb/204Pb from 38.0984 to 42.9744). Molybdenite deposition is interpreted to have occurred from a low-density magmatic-hydrothermal fluid in response to decreases in temperature, pressure, and fO2.


Fluid inclusions Mo isotopes Porphyry Mo deposits Hashitu Northeast China 



We thank Mineralium Deposita referees, Thomas Ulrich and Huaying Liang, Associate Editor Shao-Yong Jiang, and Editor-in-Chief Georges Beaudoin for their constructive reviews and comments, which significantly improved this paper. Ed Ripley and Ben Underwood helped with the sulfur isotope analyses, Li Su and Hongyu Zhang with the zircon and sulfide trace element analyses, and Noémie Breillat with the molybdenum isotope analyses. Xingwang Liu and Gongwen Wang helped with the field work and Wenbing Zhu with the preparation of samples for H-O isotope analyses. Discussions with and helpful suggestions from Chusi Li and Sotirios Kokkalas helped us to clarify some of the ideas presented in the manuscript. This research was supported financially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41503042, 41272110), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant 2652015045), the Open Research Funds for GPMR (Grant GPMR201513), and the Chinese “111” project (Grant B07011). An initial draft of the manuscript was prepared during the visit of DZ to Indiana University in 2013–2014, which was funded by the China Scholarship Council.

Supplementary material

126_2017_745_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 26 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Degao Zhai
    • 1
  • Jiajun Liu
    • 1
  • Stylianos Tombros
    • 2
  • Anthony E. Williams-Jones
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral ResourcesChina University of GeosciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of GeologyUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesMcGill UniversityQuebecCanada

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