Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 323–338 | Cite as

Native gold from the Inagli Pt–Au placer deposit (the Aldan Shield, Russia): geochemical characteristics and implications for possible bedrock sources

  • Tatyana V. Svetlitskaya
  • Peter A. Nevolko
  • Vladislav V. Kolpakov
  • Nadezhda D. Tolstykh
Article

Abstract

The Inagli alluvial Pt–Au placer deposit in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia, is linked to the Inagli massif, one of the several Uralian–Alaskan-type alkaline-ultrabasic complexes in the Aldan Shield. Gold from the placer is heterogeneous in composition and is represented by three types. Type 1 gold is the most abundant and is characterized by simple Au–Ag alloys with 4–34 wt% Ag, low Cu (up to 0.08 wt%) and negligible Hg, Pt, and Pd contents, and silver–tellurium sulfosalts (Ag–Cu–Te–S–As compounds) in the inclusion suite. Silicate inclusions are biotite, K-feldspar, Fe–Mg amphibole, chlorite, plagioclase, Fe–Mg pyroxene, zircon, and titanite. Distinctive features of this gold type are most similar to those derived from low-sulfidation systems linked to iron oxide copper–gold or iron skarn types of mineralization. The bedrock source of type 1 gold could be related with monzonite to syenite intrusions surrounding the Inagli massif. Distinctive features of type 2 gold include a wide discontinuous range of Ag content (1–18 wt%), elevated Cu (up to 0.5 wt%), and occasional Pd (up to 0.3 wt%) levels, non-detectable Pt and Hg contents, and rare inclusions of simple sulfides (digenite, pyrrhotite) and Na amphibole. Type 3 gold is distinguished by a narrow range in Ag content (5–8 wt%), elevated Hg (0.5–1 wt%) contents, negligible Cu, Pt and Pd levels, and Au–Pb compounds + K-feldspar inclusions. Microchemical characteristics of type 2 and type 3 gold are interpreted as suggestive of an alkaline–magmatic-related fluid. Based on the grain morphology and microchemical signatures, potential bedrock sources for both gold types could be related to the numerous alkaline veins and potassic alteration zones within the dunite core. A comparison of the Inagli and the Kondyor placer gold allows to generate distinctive generic signatures for gold from Uralian–Alaskan-type alkaline–ultrabasic complexes in the Aldan Shield.

Keywords

Placer gold Gold morphology Gold composition Microchemical characterization Inagli Aldan Shield Russia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Editor-in-Chief of Mineralium Deposita Professor Bernd Lehmann and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive review, editorial handling and helpful comments all of which greatly improved this manuscript. This study was funded by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF), Grant No. 15-17-20036.

Supplementary material

126_2017_744_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (41 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 40 kb)

References

  1. Alakshin AM, Karsakov LP (1985) Deep-seated structure of zone of the Stanovoy structural suture. Tikhookeanskaya Geol 26:70–80 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. Barkov AY, Nixon GT, Leyson VM, Martin RF (2009) A cryptically zoned amalgam (Au1.5-1.9Ag1.1-1.42.8-3.0Hg1.0-1.2 from a placer deposit in the Tulameen–Similkameen river system, British Columbia, Canada: natural or man-made? Can Mineral 47:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bindi L, Stanley CJ, Spry PG (2015) New structural data reveal benleonardite to be a member of the pearceite–polybasite group. Mineral Mag 79:1213–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowell RJ (1992) Supergene gold mineralogy at Ashanti, Ghana: implications for the supergene behaviour of gold. Mineral Mag 56:545–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyarko GY, Dik IP (2000) The Inagli gold-platinum placer deposit. In: Korobeynikov AF (ed) Proceedings of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits in Siberia. TPU, Tomsk, pp 257–267 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Carrillo Rosúa FJ, Morales Ruano S, Fenoll Hach-Alí P (2002) The three generations of gold in the Palai-Islica epithermal deposit, southeastern Spain. Can Mineral 40:1465–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman RJ, Mortensen JK (2006) Application of microchemical characterization of placer gold grains to exploration for epithermal gold mineralization in regions of poor exposure. J Geochem Explor 91:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman RJ, Shaw MH, Leake RC, Jackson B (2005) Gold mineralisation in the central Ochil Hills, Perthshire, UK. Trans Inst Min Metall B 114:B53–B64Google Scholar
  9. Chapman RJ, Leake RC, Bond DPG, Stedra V, Fairgrieve B (2009) Chemical and mineralogical signatures of gold formed in oxidizing chloride hydrothermal systems and their significance within populations of placer gold grains collected during reconnaissance. Econ Geol 104:563–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chapman RJ, Mortensen JK, LeBarge WP (2011) Styles of lode gold mineralization contributing to the placers of the Indian River and Black Hills creek, Yukon territory, Canada as deduced from microchemical characterization of placer gold grains. Mineral Deposita 46:881–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chapman RJ, Mileham TJ, Allan MA, Mortensen JK (2017) A distinctive Pd-hg signature in detrital gold derived from alkalic cu-au porphyry systems. Ore Geol Rev 83:84–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Desborough GA (1970) Silver depletion indicated by microanalysis of gold from placer occurrences, western United States. Econ Geol 65:304–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Desborough GA, Heidel RH, Raymond WH, Tripp J (1971) Primary distribution of silver and copper in native gold from six deposits in the western United States. Mineral Deposita 6:321–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Falconer DM, Craw D, Youngson JH, Faure K (2006) Gold and sulphide minerals in tertiary quartz pebble conglomerate gold placers, Southland, New Zealand. Ore Geol Rev 28:525–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freyssinet P, Butt CRM, Morris RC, Piantone P (2005) Ore-forming processes related to lateritic weathering. Econ Geol 100:681–722Google Scholar
  16. Goroshko MV, Kaplun VB, Malyshev YF, Romanovskiy NP, Gurovich VG (2010) The deep structure, magmatism, and metallogeny of the Central Aldan block, Aldan-Stanovoy shield. Russ J Pac Geol 4:275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Groen JC, Craig JR, Rimstidt JD (1990) Gold-rich rim formation on electrum grains in placers. Can Mineral 28:207–228Google Scholar
  18. Hallbauer DK, Utter T (1977) Geochemical and morphological characteristics of gold particles from recent river deposits and the fossil placer of the Witwatersrand. Mineral Deposita 12:293–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hansen LD, Dipple GM, Gordon TM, Kellett DA (2005) Carbonated serpentinite (listwanite) at Atlin, British Columbia: a geological analogue to carbon dioxide sequestration. Can Mineral 43:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Healy RE, Petruk W (1990) Petrology of au-ag-hg alloy and “invisible” gold in the trout Lake massive sulfide deposit, Flin Flon, Manitoba. Can Mineral 28:189–206Google Scholar
  21. Hough RM, Butt CRM, Fischer-Bühner J (2009) The crystallography, metallography and composition of gold. Elements 5:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huston DL, Bottrill RS, Creelman RA, Zaw K, Ramsden TR, Rand SW, Gemmell JB, Jablonski W, Sie SH, Large RR (1992) Geologic and geochemical controls on the mineralogy and grain size of gold-bearing phases, eastern Australian volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits. Econ Geol 87:542–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ibragimova EK, Radkov AV, Molchanov AV, Shatova NV, Shatov VV, Lepekhina EN, Antonov AV, Tolmachova EV, Soloview OL, Terekhov AV, Horohorina EI (2015) The results of U–Pb (SRIMP II) dating of zircons from dunites of the Inagli massif (the Aldan shield) and the problem of the genesis of concentrically-zoned complexes. Regionalnaya Geologiya i Metallogeniya 62:64–78 (in Russian with English abstract)Google Scholar
  24. Jianjun L, Rucheng W, Huan H, Jianfeng G (2000) A new mechanism of formation of the silver-rim structure on primary gold grains. Chin J Geochem 19:134–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khanchuk AI (2006) Geodynamics, magmatism, and Metallogeny of the Russian east. Dal’nauka, Vladivostok (in Russian)Google Scholar
  26. Khomich VG, Boriskina NG (2010) Structural position of large gold ore districts in the Central Aldan (Yakutia) and Argun (Transbaikalia) superterranes. Russ Geol Geophys 51:661–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khomich VG, Boriskina NG, Santosh M (2015) Geodynamics of late Mesozoic PGE, au, and U mineralization in the Aldan shield, north Asian craton. Ore Geol Rev 68:30–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Knight JB, Morison SR, Mortensen JK (1999) The relationship between placer gold particle shape, rimming, and distance of fluvial transport as exemplified by gold from the Klondike District, Yukon territory, Canada. Econ Geol 94:635–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Konstantinov MM, Nekrasov EM, Sidorov AA, Strujkov SF (2000) Gold giants of Russia and world. Scientific World, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. Korchagin AM (1996) Inagli pluton and its mineral resources. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. Kostoyanov AI (1998) Model re–Os age of platinum minerals. Geol Ore Deposits 40:485–489Google Scholar
  32. Kovalenker VA, Myznikov IK, Kochetkov AY, Naumov VB (1996) PGE-bearing gold-sulfide mineralization in the Ryabinovyi alkaline massif, central Aldan, Russia. Geol Ore Deposits 38:307–317Google Scholar
  33. Kravchenko AA, Smelov AP, Berezkin VI, Popov NV, Dobretsov VN (2008) Mineralogy and geochemistry of bipyroxene schist-hosted gold mineralization (P. Pinigin deposit, the Aldan craton). Otechestvennaya Geol 5:14–24 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. Kravchenko AA, Smelov AP, Berezkin VI, Popov NV (2010) Geology and genesis of Precambrian gold-bearing metabasites of the central part of the Aldan-Stanovoy shield (the P. Pinigin deposit) DPMGI SB RAS, Yakutsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. Litvintsev VS, Ponomarchuk GP, Banshchikova TS (2005) Morphological characteristic of gold of legacy placers of the Dzhalinda River and Inagli River and problems of its extraction. Min Informat Anal Bull 3:318–326 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. Malitch KN, Thalhammer OAR (2002) Pt–Fe nuggets derived from clinopyroxenite–dunite massifs, Russia: a structural, compositional and osmium-isotope study. Can Mineral 40:395–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mann AW (1984) Mobility of gold and silver in lateritic weathering profiles: some observations from Western Australia. Econ Geol 79:38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maximov EP, Uyutov VI, Nikitin VM (2010) The Central Aldan gold–uranium ore magmatogenic system, Aldan–Stanovoy shield, Russia. Russ J Pac Geol 4:95–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McClenaghan MB, Cabri LJ (2011) Review of gold and platinum group element (PGE) indicator minerals methods for surficial sediment sampling. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 11:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moles NR, Chapman RJ, Warner RB (2013) The significance of copper concentrations in natural gold alloy for reconnaissance exploration and understanding gold-depositing hydrothermal systems. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 13:115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Morrison GW, Rose WJ, Jaireth S (1991) Geological and geochemical controls on the silver content (fineness) of gold in gold–silver deposits. Ore Geol Rev 6:333–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mues-Schumacher U, Keller J, Kononova VA, Suddaby PJ (1996) Mineral chemistry and geochronology of the potassic alkaline ultramafic Inagli complex, Aldan shield, eastern Siberia. Mineral Mag 60:711–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Naden J, Styles MT, Henney PJ (1994) Characterisation of gold from Zimbabwe: Part 1. Bedrock gold. BGS Technical Report WC/94/51Google Scholar
  44. Nakagawa M, Santosh M, Nambiar CG, Matsubaral C (2005) Morphology and chemistry of placer gold from Attappadi Valley, southern India. Gondwana Res 8:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nefedov VI, Zhavoronkov NM, Machavariani GV, Salyn YV, Makeev VA, Zelenov VI (1982) The variation of silver content in native gold particles as revealed by ESCA. Phys Chem Miner 8:193–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nekrasov IY, Ivanov VV, Lennilov AM, Sapin VI, Safronov PP, Oktyabrsky RA (2001) Rare natural polycomponent alloys based on gold and copper from a platinum placer in the Konder alkaline-ultrabasic massif, southeastern Aldan shield, Russia. Geol Rudnykh Mestorozh 43(5):452–464 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  47. Nekrasov IY, Lennikov AM, Zalishchak BL, Oktyabrsky RA, Ivanov VV, Sapin VI, Taskaev VI (2005) Compositional variations in platinum-group minerals and gold, Konder alkaline-ultrabasic massif, Aldan shield, Russia. Can Miner 43:637–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Okrugin AV (2001) Mineral parageneses and the origin of isoferroplatinum nuggets from the Ignali placer deposit (Siberian platform). Geol Ore Deposits 43:239–250Google Scholar
  49. Okrugin AV, Zhuravlev AI, Mokhnachevsky GV (2013) Mineralogical, geochemical and morphological features of placer gold of the southeastern Siberian platform. Otechestvennaya Geol 5:19–27 (in Russian with English abstract)Google Scholar
  50. Okrugin AV, Zhuravlev AI, Mokhnachevsky GV, Ibragimov KZ (2014) Topomineralogical projection of the precious metals, rare and radioactive elements endogenetic mineralization in the Central Aldan magmatogene system (Aldan shield, Russia). Geology and mineral resources of Siberia 3:23–27 (in Russian with English abstract)Google Scholar
  51. Parfenov LM, Kuzmin MI (2001) Tectonics, Geodynamics, and Metallogeny of the area of Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya). Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  52. Popov NV, Smelov AP (1996) Metamorphic formations of the Aldan shield. Geol Geofiz 40:716–728 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  53. Popov NV, Shaporina MN, Amuzinsky VA, Smelov AP, Zedgenizov AN (1999) Metallogeny of gold of Aldan province. Geol Geofiz 40:716–728 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  54. Potter M, Styles MT (2003) Gold characterisation as a guide to bedrock sources for the Estero Hondo alluvial gold mine, western Ecuador. Trans Inst Min Metall (Sect B, Appl Earth Sci) 112:297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Razin LV (1966) Platinum metalliferousness of the Inagli massif of ultrabasic and alkaline rocks (Aldan Shield). PhD thesis. MSU, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  56. Rozhkov IS, Kitsul VI, Razin LV, Borishanskaya SS (1962) Platinum of Aldan shield. Academy of Sciences of the USSR Press, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  57. Rudashevskii NS, Mochalov AG, Begizov VD, Men’shikov YP, Shumskaya NI (1984) Inaglyite, PbCu3(Ir,Pt)8S16, a new mineral. Zap Vses Mineral Ob 113:712–717 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. Rudashevskii NS, Men’shikov YP, Mochalov AG, Trubkin NV, Shumskaia NI, Zhdanov VV (1985) Cuprorhodsite CuRh2S4 and cuproiridsite CuIr2S4 – new natural thiospinels of platinum elements. Zap Vses Mineral Ob 114:187–195 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  59. Shatkov GA, Volsky AS (2004) Tectonics, deep structure, and mineralogy of the Amur River region and neighboring areas. Izdatelstvo VSEGEI, St. Petersburg (in Russian)Google Scholar
  60. Shcheka GG, Lehmann B, Gierth E, Gömann K, Wallianos A (2004) Macrocrystals of Pt-Fe alloy from the Kondyor PGE placer deposit, Khabarovskiy kray, Russia: trace-element content, mineral inclusions and reaction assemblages. Can Mineral 42:601–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sheets RW, Craig JR, Bodnar RJ (1995) Composition and occurrence of electrum at the morning star deposit, San Bernardino County, California; evidence for remobilization of gold and silver. Can Mineral 33:137–151Google Scholar
  62. Shnai GK (1980) Heterogeneity of dunites in the ultrabasic–alkaline massifs by the example of the Inagli massif. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Ser Geol 4:23–35 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  63. Smelov AP, Timofeev VF (2007) The age of the north Asian Cratonic basement: an overview. Gondwana Res 12:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Terekhov AV, Molchanov AV, Shatova NV, Belova VN (2014) Two types of ore-bearing gumbeiti of the Elkon gold-uranium ore cluster (south Yakutia). Regionalnaya Geologiya i Metallogeniya 62:64–78 (in Russian with English abstract)Google Scholar
  65. Tolstykh ND, Krivenko AP (1997) Platinum-group minerals in the Inagli placer (Aldan shield). Russ Geol Geophys 38:808–817Google Scholar
  66. Townley BK, Hérail G, Maksaev V, Palacios C, de Parseval P, Sepulveda F, Orellana R, Rivas P, Ulloa C (2003) Gold grain morphology and composition as an exploration tool: application to gold exploration in covered areas. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 3:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vishiti A, Suh CE, Lehmann B, Egbe JA, Shemang EM (2015) Gold grade variation and particle microchemistry in exploration pits of the Batouri gold district, SE Cameroon. J Afr Earth Sci 111:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Xue T, Osseo-Asare K (1985) Heterogeneous equilibria in the au-CN-H2O and ag-CN-H2O systems. Metall Mater Trans B Process Metall Mater Process Sci 16:455–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhu Z (2016) Gold in iron oxide copper–gold deposits. Ore Geol Rev 72:37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatyana V. Svetlitskaya
    • 1
  • Peter A. Nevolko
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vladislav V. Kolpakov
    • 1
  • Nadezhda D. Tolstykh
    • 1
  1. 1.VS Sobolev Institute of Geology and MineralogySiberian Branch Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia

Personalised recommendations