Advertisement

Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 311–322 | Cite as

Multiple episodes of mineralization revealed by Re-Os molybdenite geochronology in the Lala Fe-Cu deposit, SW China

  • Zhimin Zhu
  • Hongqi Tan
  • Yingdong Liu
  • Chao Li
Article
  • 475 Downloads

Abstract

The Lala Fe-Cu deposit is one of the largest iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits in the Kangdian copper belt, southwest China. The paragenetic sequence of the Lala deposit includes six hydrothermal stages: pre-ore pervasive Na alteration (I); magnetite stage with K-feldspar and apatite (II); polymetallic disseminated/massive magnetite-sulfide stage (III); banded magnetite-sulfide stage (IV); sulfide vein stage (V); and late quartz-carbonate vein stage (VI). Fifteen molybdenite separates from stages III to VI were analyzed for Re-Os dating. Our new Re-Os data, together with previous studies, identify four distinct hydrothermal events at the Lala deposit. Molybdenite from the stage III disseminated to massive chalcopyrite-magnetite ores yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 1306 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 1.1, n = 6) which represents the timing of main ore formation. Molybdenite from the stage IV-banded magnetite-chalcopyrite ores yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 1086 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 2.2, n = 7), i.e., a second ore-forming event. Molybdenite from the stage V sulfide veins yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 988 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 1.3, n = 7) which represents the timing of a third hydrothermal event. Molybdenite from the quartz-carbonate veins (stage VI) yielded a weighted average Re-Os age at 835 ± 4 Ma (MSWD = 0.66, n = 10) and documented the timing of a late hydrothermal event. Our results indicate that the Lala deposit formed during multiple, protracted mineralization events over several hundred million years. The first three Mesoproterozoic mineralization events are coeval with intra-continental rifting (breakup of the supercontinent Nuna) and share a temporal link to other IOCG-style deposits within the Kangdian Copper Belt, and the last Neoproterozoic hydrothermal event is coeval with the Sibao orogeny which culminated with the amalgamation of the Yangtze Block with the Cathaysia Block at 860–815 Ma.

Keywords

Fe oxide-Cu-Au deposit Multiple episodes of mineralization Molybdenite Re-Os dating Lala deposit 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41102044) and Sichuan Youth Science & Technology Foundation of China (2012JQ0026). We thank the Lala copper mining staff, especially Huaijun Zhao and Fuquan Liu for the assistance in the field. We also thank Dr. Wei Chen for sharing the photograph of banded Cu-Mo ore and Dr. Yang Li, Dr. Rongqing Zhang, and Dr. Kongyang Zhu for the help with the preparation of this manuscript. We are grateful to Chris Lawley and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive and incisive comments, which substantially improved the presentation of this paper. Finally, Prof. Bernd Lehmann is gratefully acknowledged for his editorial handling.

References

  1. Aleinikoff JN, Slack JF, Lund K, Evans KV, Fanning CM, Mazdab FK, Wooden JL, Pillers RM (2012) Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks. Econ Geol 107:1143–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barton MD (2014) Iron oxide(−-Cu-Au-REE-P-Ag-U-Co) systems. Treatise on Geochemistry (2nd Edition) 13:515–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradley DC (2011) Secular trends in the geologic record and the supercontinent cycle. Earth Sci Rev 108:16–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cawood PA, Hawkesworth CJ (2015) Temporal relations between mineral deposits and global tectonic cycles, in Jenkin G.RT, Lusty PAJ, Mcdonald I, Smith MP, Boyce AJ, Wilkinson JJ, eds., Ore Deposits in an Evolving Earth. Geological Society of London Special Publications 393: 9–21Google Scholar
  5. Chen HY (2010) Mesozoic IOCG mineralization in the central Andes: an updated review. In: Porter TM (ed) Hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold and related deposits: a global perspective 3. PGC Publishing, Adelaide, pp 259–272Google Scholar
  6. Chen WT, Zhou MF (2012) Paragenesis, stable isotopes, and Molybdenite Re-Os isotope age of the Lala iron-copper deposit, Southwest China. Econ Geol 107:459–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen WT, Zhou MF (2014) Ages and compositions of primary and secondary allanite from the Lala Fe–Cu deposit, SW China: implications for multiple episodes of hydrothermal events. Contrib Mineral Petrol 168:1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen WT, Zhou MF (2015) Mineralogical and geochemical constraints on mobilization and mineralization of rare earth elements in the Lala Fe-Cu-(Mo, REE) deposit, SW China. Am J Sci 315:671–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen HY, Cooke DR, Baker MJ (2013a) Mesozoic iron oxide copper-gold mineralization in the central Andes and the Gondwana Supercontinent breakup. Econ Geol 108:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen WT, Zhou MF, Zhao XF (2013b) Late Paleoproterozoic sedimentary and mafic rocks in the Hekou area, SW China: implication for the reconstruction of the Yangtze Block in Columbia. Precambrian Res 231:61–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen WT, Sun WH, Wang W, Zhao JH, Zhou MF (2014) “Grenvillian” intra-plate mafic magmatism in the southwestern Yangtze Block, SW China. Precambrian Res 242:138–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Condie K, Pisarevsky SA, Korenaga J, Gardoll S (2015) Is the rate of supercontinent assembly changing with time? Precambrian Res 259:278–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Haller A, Corfu F, Fontboté L, Schaltegger U, Barra F, Chiaradia M, Martin F, Alvarado JZ (2006) Geology, geochronology, and Hf and Pb isotope data of the Raúl-Condestable iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, central coast of Peru. Econ Geol 101:281–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Du AD, Wu SQ, Sun DZ, Wang SX, Qu WJ, Markey RJ, Stein HJ, Morgan JW, Malinovskiy D (2004) Preparation and certification of Re-Os dating reference materials: molybdenite HLP and JDC. Geostandard and Geoanalytical Research 28:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duncan RJ, Stein HJ, Evans KA, Hitzman MW, Nelson EP, Kirwin DJ (2011) A new geochronological framework for mineralization and alteration in the Selwyn-Mount Dore Corridor, Eastern Fold Belt, Mount Isa Inlier, Australia: genetic implications for iron oxide copper-gold deposits. Econ Geol 106:169–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Geng Y, Yang C, Du L, Wang X, Ren L, Zhou X (2007) Chronology and tectonic environment of the Tianbaoshan formation: new evidence from zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age and geochemistry. Geological Review 53:556–563Google Scholar
  17. Greentree MR (2007) Tectonstratigraphic analysis of the Proterozoic Kangdian iron oxide–copper province, south west China. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Western Australia: 284Google Scholar
  18. Greentree MR, Li ZX (2008) The oldest known rocks in south-western China: SHRIMP U–Pb magmatic crystallisation age and detrital provenance analysis of the Paleoproterozoic Dahongshan Group. J Asian Earth Sci 33:289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greentree MR, Li ZX, Li XH, Wu H (2006) Late Mesoproterozoic to earliest Neoproterozoic basin record of the Sibao orogenesis in western South China and relationship to the assembly of Rodinia. Precambrian Res 151:79–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Groves DI, Bierlein FP (2007) Geodynamic settings of mineral deposit systems. J Geol Soc Lond 164:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Groves DI, Bierlein FP, Meinert LD, Hitzman MW (2010) Iron oxide copper–gold (IOCG) deposits through Earth history: implications for origin, lithospheric setting, and distinction from other epigenetic iron oxide deposits. Econ Geol 105:641–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hitzman MW, Valenta RK (2005) Uranium in iron oxide-copper–gold (IOCG) systems. Econ Geol 100:1657–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hitzman MW, Oreskes N, Einaudi MT (1992) Geological characteristics and tectonic setting of Proterozoic iron oxide (cu-U-au-REE) deposit. Precambrian Res 58:241–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hou L, Ding J, Deng J, Peng HJ (2015) Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of the Yinachang Fe–Cu–Au–REE deposit of the Kangdian region of SW China: evidence for a Paleo–Mesoproterozoic tectono-magmatic event and associated IOCG systems in the western Yangtze Block. J Asian Earth Sci 103:129–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huang XW, Zhao XF, Qi L, Zhou MF (2013) Re-Os and S isotopic constraints on the origins of two mineralization events at the Tangdan sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform Cu deposit, SW China. Chem Geol 347:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaur P, Chaudhri N (2014) Metallogeny associated with the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Columbia supercontinent cycle: a synthesis of major metallic deposits. Ore Geol Rev 56:415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li XC, Zhou MF (2015) Multiple stages of hydrothermal REE remobilization recorded in fluorapatite in the Paleoproterozoic Yinachang Fe–Cu–(REE) deposit, Southwest China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 166:53–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li FH, Qin JM, Shen YL, Yu FX, Zhou GF, Pan XN, Li XZ (1988) The Presinian in the Kangdian area. Chongqing Publishing House, Chongqing, pp 1–396Google Scholar
  29. Li ZX, Zhang L, Powell CM (1995) South China in Rodinia: part of the missing link between Australia–East Antarctica and Laurentia? Geology 23:407–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li ZX, Li XH, Zhou H, Kinny PD (2002) Grenvillian continental collision in south China: new SHRIMP U–Pb zircon results and implications for the configuration of Rodinia. Geology 30:163–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moreto CPN, Monteiro LVS, Xavier RP, Creaser RA, DuFrane A, GHC M, Silva MAD, Tassinari CCG, Sato K (2015a) Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide–copper–gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil. Mineral Deposita 50:517–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moreto CPN, Monteiro LVS, Xavier RP, Creaser R, Dufrane A, Tassinari CG, Sato K, Kemp AIS, Amaral WS (2015b) Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic iron oxide-copper-gold events at the Sossego deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil: Re-Os and U-Pb geochronological evidence. Econ Geol 110:809–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pehrsson SJ, Eglington BM, Evans DAD, Huston D, Reddy SM (2015) Metallogeny and its link to orogenic style during the Nuna supercontinent cycle, in Li ZX, Evans DAD, Murphy JB, eds., Supercontinent Cycles Through Earth History. Geological Society of London Special Publications 424: 83–94Google Scholar
  34. Porter TM (2010) Advances in the understanding of IOCG and related deposits. In: Porter TM (ed) Hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold and related deposits: a global perspective 3. PGC Publishing, Adelaide, pp 5–106Google Scholar
  35. Requia K, Stein H, Fontbote L, Chiaradia M (2003) Re-Os and Pb-Pb geochronology of the Archean Salobo iron oxide copper-gold deposit, Carajas mineral province, northern Brazil. Mineral Deposita 38:727–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Selby D, Creaser RA (2004) Macroscale NTIMS and microscale LA-MC-ICP-MS Re–Os isotopic analysis of molybdenite: testing spatial restrictions for reliable Re–Os age determinations, and implications for the decoupling of Re and Os within molybdenite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:3897–3908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sillitoe RH (2012) Copper provinces. Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication 16:1–18Google Scholar
  38. Skirrow RG, Bastrakov EN, Barovich K, Fraser GL, Creaser R, Fanning MC, Raymond OL, Davidson GJ (2007) Timing of iron oxide Cu-Au-(U) hydrothermal activity and Nd isotope constraints on metal sources in the Gawler craton, South Australia. Econ Geol 102:1441–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith MP, Storey CD, Jeffries TE, Ryan C (2009) In situ U–Pb and trace element analysis of accessory minerals in the Kiruna district, Norrbotten, Sweden: new constraints on the timing and origin of mineralization. J Petrol 50:2063–2094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smoliar MI, Walker RJ, Morgan JW (1996) Re-Os ages of group IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IVB iron meteorites. Science 271:1099–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Song H (2014) Precambrian copper-iron-gold-uranium ploymetallic deposits and their regional metallogey in southwestern margin of Yangtze Block. Ph.D thesis, The Chengdu University of Technology: 1–217Google Scholar
  42. Stein HJ (2006) Low-rhenium molybdenite by metamorphism in northern Sweden: recognition, genesis, and global implications. Lithos 87:300–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stein HJ (2014) Dating and tracing the history of ore formation. Treatise on geochemistry (2nd Edition) 13:87–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stein HJ, Markey RJ, Morgan JW, Hannah JL, Scherstén A (2001) The remarkable Re-Os chronometer in molybdenite: how and why it works. Terra Nov. 13:479–486Google Scholar
  45. Stein H, Schersten A, Hannah J, Markey R (2003) Sub-grain scale decoupling of Re and 187Os and assessment of laser ablation ICP-MS spot dating in molybdenite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:3673–3686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Valley PM, Hanchar JM, Whitehouse MJ (2009) Direct dating of Fe oxide-(Cu-Au) mineralization by U/Pb zircon geochronology. Geology 37:223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang DH, Luo YN, Qu WJ, Li YQ, Fu DM, Li YG, Li CJ, Chen ZY, Fu XF (2007a) Geology, geochemistry and exploration of PGE deposits in SW China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp 1–335Google Scholar
  48. Wang XL, Zhou JC, Griffin WL, Wang RC, Qiu JS, O'Reilly SY, Xu XS, Liu XM, Zhang GL (2007b) Detrital zircon geochronology of Precambrian basement sequences in the Jiangnan orogen: dating the assembly of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks. Precambrian Res 159:117–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang Z, Zhou B, Guo Y, Yang B, Liao Z, Wang S (2012) Geochemistry and zircon U–Pb dating of Tangtang granite in the western margin of the Yangtze Platform. Acta Petrol Mineral 31:652–662Google Scholar
  50. Williams PJ, Barton MD, Johnson DA, Fontboté L, de Haller A, Mark G, Oliver NHS, Marschik R (2005) Iron oxide copper-gold deposits: Geology, Space-time distribution, and possible modes of origin. Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume: 371–405Google Scholar
  51. Yan DP, Zhou MF, Song HL, Wang XW, Malpas J (2003) Origin and tectonic significance of a Mesozoic multi-layer over-thrust within the Yangtze Block (South China). Tectonophysics 361:239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yang H, Liu FL, Du LL, Liu PH, Wang F (2012) Zircon U-Pb dating for metavolcanites in the Laochanghe Formation of the Dahongshan Group in southwestern Yangtze Block, and its geological significance. Acta Petrol Sin 28:2994–3014Google Scholar
  53. Yao JL, Shu LS, Santosh M, Zhao GC (2014) Neoproterozoic arc-related mafic–ultramafic rocks and syn-collision granite from the western segment of the Jiangnan Orogen, South China: constraints on the Neoproterozoic assembly of the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks. Precambrian Res 243:39–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yin FG, Sun ZM, Zhang Z (2011) Mesoproterozoic stratigraphicstructure framework in Huili-Dongchuan area. Geological Review 57:770–778Google Scholar
  55. Zhao GC (2015) Jiangnan Orogen in South China: developing from divergent double subduction. Gondwana Res 27:1173–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhao GC, Cawood PA (2012) Precambrian geology of China. Precambrian Res 222:13–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhao XF, Zhou MF (2011) Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian region, SW China: a Proterozoic IOCG (iron-oxide-copper-gold) metallogenic province. Mineral Deposita 46:731–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhao XF, Zhou MF, Li JW, Sun M, Gao JF, Sun WH, Yang JH (2010) Late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group in Yunnan, SW China: Implications for tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Block. Precambrian Res 182(1–2):57–69Google Scholar
  59. Zhao JH, Zhou MF, Yan DP, Zheng JP, Li JW (2011) Reappraisal of the ages of Neoproterozoic strata in South China: no connection with the Grenvillian orogeny. Geology 39:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhao XF, Zhou MF, Li JW, Selby D, Li XH, Qi L (2013) Sulfide Re-Os and Rb-Sr isotopic dating of the Kangdian IOCG metallogenic province, SWChina: implications for regional metallogenesis. Econ Geol 108:1489–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhao XF, Zhou MF, Su ZK, Li XC, Chen WT, Li JW (2017) Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of the Dahongshan Fe-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit, Southwest China: implications for the formation of iron oxide copper-gold deposits in intracratonic rift settings. Econ Geol 112:603–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhou MF, Yan DP, Kennedy AK, Li Y, Ding J (2002) SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronological and geochemical evidence for Neoproterozoic arc-magmatism along the western margin of the Yangtze Block, South China. Earth Planet Sci Lett 196:51–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhou MF, ZhaoXF CWT, Li XC, Wang W, Yan DP, Qiu HN (2014) Proterozoic Fe-Cu metallogeny and supercontinental cycles of the southwestern Yangtze Block, southern China and northern Vietnam. Earth Sci Rev 139:59–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhu ZM (2016) Gold in iron oxide copper–gold deposits. Ore Geol Rev 72:37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhu ZM, Sun YL (2013) Direct Re-Os dating of chalcopyrite from the Lala IOCG deposit in the Kangdian Copper Belt. China: Economic Geology 108:871–882Google Scholar
  66. Zhu ZM, Zeng LX, Zhou JY, Luo LP, Chen JB, Shen B (2009) Lala iron oxide-copper-gold deposit in Sichuan Province: evidences from mineralography. Geol J China Univ 15:485–495Google Scholar
  67. Zhu ZM, Hou KJ, Zhu KY, Tan HQ (2013) Geochronology and geochemistry of the Hekou Group in Sichuan Province, SW China. Geochem J 47:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral ResourcesChinese Academy of Geological SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.National Research Center for GeoanalysisChinese Academy of Geological SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations