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Table 1 Incidence of IAA only, GADA only and a combination of IAA and GADA and time to seroconversion

From: The 6 year incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in genetically at-risk children: the TEDDY study

Participant groups IAA only at seroconversion (n = 240)a GADA only at seroconversion (n = 207)a p value (vs IAA only) IAA and GADA at seroconversion (n = 76)a p value (vs IAA only)
  No. /1,000 person-years Time (months) to seroconversion, median (IQR) No. /1,000 person-years Time (months) to seroconversion, median (IQR)   No. /1,000 person-years Time (months) to seroconversion, median (IQR)  
All (n = 8,503) 7.0 18.4 (10.5–30.6) 6.1 33.0 (19.2–48.4) <0.001 2.2 24.1 (12.9–34.8) 0.008
FDR
 No (n = 7,584) 6.1 18.4 (10.4–30.3) 5.5 33.0 (19.4–48.1) <0.001 1.9 27.0 (12.9–35.8) 0.006
 Yes (n = 919) 14.5 18.7 (11.9–34.7) 10.6 28.2 (18.5–49.8) 0.003 4.6 22.4 (12.2–27.9) 0.64
HLA-DR genotype
DR3/4 (n = 3,318) 9.1 18.2 (10.0–27.5) 7.6 35.4 (21.1–50.8) <0.001 3.7 24.2 (12.9–33.2) 0.008
DR4/4 (n = 1,660) 6.3 22.9 (10.0–37.1) 4.6 26.9 (21.3–43.1) 0.07 1.5 31.4 (19.3–39.1) 0.17
DR4/8 (n = 1,470) 8.8 16.1 (10.2–29.5) 3.6 33.0 (19.1–48.4) <0.001 1.0 27.0 (20.9–33.7) 0.19
DR3/3 (n = 1,781) 2.0 25.7 (15.3–43.8) 7.0 27.8 (16.7–45.3) 0.75 0.4 12.8 (12.4–18.3) 0.18
 FDR HLAb (n = 274) 11.0 19.1 (15.3–40.2) 3.4 37.6 (29.3–55.6) 0.19 6.8 22.8 (11.0–33.1) 0.64
Country
 USA (n = 3,627) 5.2 21.4 (13.1–30.0) 6.5 31.3 (19.4–47.8) <0.001 1.7 24.2 (15.2–33.7) 0.31
 Finland (n = 1,805) 9.6 15.3 (9.2–27.1) 4.5 32.8 (22.1–48.4) <0.001 2.0 27.5 (21.9–33.3) 0.007
 Sweden (n = 2,497) 7.5 19.0 (10.2–35.7) 7.0 33.0 (19.3–48.6) <0.001 2.4 26.8 (12.3–40.5) 0.29
 Germany (n = 574) 9.0 16.3 (9.5–35.3) 5.5 28.2 (13.0–50.8) 0.10 6.5 22.1 (12.4–23.5) 0.67
  1. aIncidences and times to seroconversion are shown by FDR, HLA-DR and country. Times to GADA only or IAA and GADA are compared with time to seroconversion for IAA only children
  2. bFDR HLA genotypes are DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 with either DRB1*04-DQA1*03-DQB1*02, DRB1*01-DQA1*01:01-DQB1*05:01, DRB1*13-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:04, DRB1*09- DQA1*03-DQB1*03:03 or genotype DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02:01/ DRB1*09-DQA1*03-DQB1*03:03