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Table 3 HRs for the association of dairy product intake and risk of type 2 diabetes per category of energy-adjusted dairy product intake using the residual method: EPIC-Norfolk Study (n = 4,127)

From: Dietary dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: a prospective study using dietary data from a 7-day food diary

  Tertile 1a Tertile 2 Tertile 3 p trend
Total dairy intake (g/day)b 130 (0–190) 246 (190–311) 404 (311–1,544)  
Cases/n 278/1,390 240/1,374 234/1,362  
Model 1 1 0.89 (0.74,1.08) 0.85 (0.70,1.04) 0.100
Model 2 1 0.93 (0.74,1.18) 1.04 (0.83,1.31) 0.732
Model 3 1 0.94 (0.75,1.19) 1.08 (0.86,1.37) 0.537
High-fat dairy intake (g/day)b 0 (0–19) 35 (19–54) 125 (54–1,095)  
Cases/n 257/1,377 205/1,334 291/1,416  
Model 1 1 0.90 (0.73,1.11) 1.15 (0.95,1.39) 0.054
Model 2 1 0.76 (0.60,0.98) 1.11 (0.89,1.38) 0.075
Model 3 1 0.76 (0.58,0.98) 1.09 (0.87,1.37) 0.080
Low-fat dairy intake (g/day)b 16 (0–89) 160 (89–230) 325 (230–1,424)  
Cases/n 286/1,404 253/1,379 214/1,344  
Model 1 1 0.97 (0.80,1.17) 0.81 (0.66,0.98) 0.025
Model 2 1 0.92 (0.74,1.16) 0.89 (0.71,1.11) 0.305
Model 3 1 0.95 (0.76,1.20) 0.92 (0.73,1.17) 0.540
Milk intake (g/day)b 97 (0–150) 201 (150–264) 353 (264–1,518)  
Cases/n 271/1,387 242/1,375 238/1,363  
Model 1 1 0.89 (0.73,1.08) 0.86 (0.71,1.04) 0.104
Model 2 1 0.94 (0.75,1.18) 1.08 (0.86,1.36) 0.551
Model 3 1 0.95 (0.76,1.20) 1.11 (0.88,1.41) 0.432
Yoghurt intake (g/day)b 0 (0) 21.5 (0.1–44) 80 (44–513)  
Cases/n 542/2,698 117/723 94/706  
Model 1 1 0.79 (0.63,0.99) 0.65 (0.52,0.83) <0.001
Model 2 1 0.83 (0.63,1.08) 0.70 (0.54,0.91) 0.007
Model 3 1 0.84 (0.64,1.10) 0.72 (0.55,0.95) 0.017
Cheese intake (g/day)b 3 (0–8) 13 (8–20) 32 (20–364)  
Cases/n 247/1,371 249/1,366 257/1,390  
Model 1 1 0.98 (0.81,1.20) 1.04 (0.86,1.27) 0.623
Model 2 1 1.05 (0.84,1.31) 1.02 (0.81,1.28) 0.946
Model 3 1 1.05 (0.84,1.32) 1.04 (0.83,1.31) 0.760
Total fermented dairy intake (g/day)b 4 (0–13) 23 (13–40) 76 (40–518)  
Cases/n 269/1,388 277/1,397 207/1,342  
Model 1 1 1.01 (0.84,1.22) 0.81 (0.66,0.98) 0.018
Model 2 1 1.02 (0.82,1.27) 0.82 (0.65,1.04) 0.064
Model 3 1 1.04 (0.84,1.29) 0.85 (0.68,1.08) 0.120
High-fat fermented dairy intake (g/day)b 0 (0) 8 (0.1, 14) 22 (14-185)  
Cases/n 194/1,064 283/1,527 276/1,536  
Model 1 1 0.96 (0.78,1.18) 0.96 (0.79,1.18) 0.790
Model 2 1 1.19 (0.94,1.51) 1.12 (0.88,1.43) 0.514
Model 3 1 1.23 (0.96,1.57) 1.16 (0.91,1.49) 0.397
Low-fat fermented dairy intake (g/day)b 0 (0) 21 (0.1–43) 80 (43–513)  
Cases/n 510/2,538 130/800 113/789  
Model 1 1 0.81 (0.66,1.01) 0.72 (0.58,0.90) <0.001
Model 2 1 0.87 (0.67,1.13) 0.74 (0.58,0.96) 0.020
Model 3 1 0.89 (0.69,1.16) 0.76 (0.60,0.99) 0.049
  1. Values are HR (95% CI) except where indicated otherwise
  2. Model 1: adjusted for age (as underlying timescale), sex
  3. Model 2: Model 1 plus BMI, family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol, physical activity index, social class, education level
  4. Model 3: Model 2 plus energy, fibre, fruit, vegetables, red meat, processed meat, coffee intake
  5. aTertile cut-offs are based on energy-adjusted intakes in the subcohort, calculated using the residual method
  6. bMedian intake (range); all values in row