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Table 2 Baseline characteristics in the subcohort (n = 3,502) by tertile of total dairy intake: EPIC-Norfolk study

From: Dietary dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: a prospective study using dietary data from a 7-day food diary

Variable Total dairy intake (g/day)a  
Tertile 1 (n = 1,168) Tertile 2 (n = 1,167) Tertile 3 (n = 1,167)  
≤183 184–312 ≥313 p valueb
Total dairy intake (g/day)c 116 ± 45 245 ± 38 447 ± 134  
Anthropometric and socio-demographic characteristics
 Mend 473 (40.5) 480 (41.1) 566 (48.5) <0.001
 Age (years)c 59 ± 9 59 ± 10 59 ± 9 0.902
 Waist circumference (cm)
  Menc 97.5 ± 10.5 95.7 ± 9.4 93.9 ± 8.7 <0.001
  Womenc 82.4 ± 11.4 81.4 ± 10.49 81.3 ± 9.8 0.125
 BMI (kg/m2)c 26.8 ± 4.2 26.2 ± 3.8 25.8 ± 3.5 <0.001
 Alcohol (units/week)e 8.5 (1.0, 12.0) 6.6 (1, 9.5) 5.4 (1.0, 7.5) <0.001
 Smoking: currentd 163 (14.1) 124 (10.7) 111 (9.6) <0.001
 Education: degree or higherd 156 (13.4) 157 (13.5) 164 (14.1) 0.047
 Physical activity: actived 182 (15.6) 232 (19.9) 254 (21.8) <0.001
 Social class: professional/manageriald 495 (42.4) 509 (43.6) 490 (42.0) 0.709
Dietary intake
 Energy (kJ/day)c 7,519 ± 2,092 8,171 ± 2,021 8,912 ± 2,230 <0.001
 Saturated fat (% TE)c 12.9 ± 3.1 12.9 ± 3.0 13.1 ± 3.1 0.145
 Monounsaturated fat (% TE)c 12.3 ± 2.4 11.9 ± 2.1 11.6 ± 2.0 <0.001
 Polyunsaturated fat (% TE)c 6.7 ± 1.8 6.6 ± 1.7 6.2 ± 1.7 <0.001
 Calcium (mg/day)c 624 ± 186 807 ± 175 1,077 ± 256 <0.001
 Magnesium (mg/day)c 256 ± 75 289 ± 78 330 ± 87 <0.001
 Vitamin D (μg/day)e 2.38 (1.53, 3.67) 2.85 (1.83, 4.30) 2.98 (2.07, 4.50) <0.001
 Fibre (g/day)c 13.46 ± 4.72 15.04 ± 4.95 16.47 ± 5.90 <0.001
 Fruit (g/day)c 141 ± 124 165 ± 131 173 ± 130 <0.001
 Vegetables (g/day)e 74 (44, 119) 82 (48, 124) 83 (50, 126) 0.007
 Processed meat (g/day)c 30 ± 28 28 ± 24 26 ± 26 0.010
 Red meat (g/day)e 11 (0, 30) 13 (0, 25) 9 (0, 23) 0.008
 Coffee (g/day)e 304 (80, 598) 301 (64, 477) 271 (46, 582) 0.342
 Plasma vitamin C level (μmol/l)c 53 ± 20 54 ± 20 54 ± 20 0.357
  1. aTertile cut-offs are based on absolute intakes
  2. b p value as calculated using ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA for non-parametric data
  3. cMean ± SD; all values in row
  4. d n (%); all values in row
  5. eMedian (interquartile range); all values in row
  6. TE, total energy