The Science of Nature

, 104:27 | Cite as

Coherent array of branched filamentary scales along the wing margin of a small moth

  • Akihiro Yoshida
  • Shin Tejima
  • Masayuki Sakuma
  • Yositaka Sakamaki
  • Ryuji Kodama
Original Paper


In butterflies and moths, the wing margins are fringed with specialized scales that are typically longer than common scales. In the hindwings of some small moths, the posterior margins are fringed with particularly long filamentary scales. Despite the small size of these moth wings, these scales are much longer than those of large moths and butterflies. In the current study, photography of the tethered flight of a small moth, Phthorimaea operculella, revealed a wide array composed of a large number of long filamentary scales. This array did not become disheveled in flight, maintaining a coherent sheet-like structure during wingbeat. Examination of the morphology of individual scales revealed that each filamentary scale consists of a proximal stalk and distal branches. Moreover, not only long scales but also shorter scales of various lengths were found to coexist in each small section of the wing margin. Scale branches were ubiquitously and densely distributed within the scale array to form a mesh-like architecture similar to a nonwoven fabric. We propose that possible mechanical interactions among branched filamentary scales, mediated by these branches, may contribute to maintaining a coherent sheet-like structure of the scale array during wingbeat.


Small moth Wing margin Branched filamentary scale Mesh-like architecture Coherence 



We thank Dr. Hisao Honda and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on the manuscript. This study was supported by the EM facility at the National Institute for Physiological Science (Okazaki, Japan).

Supplementary material

114_2017_1447_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (165 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1 (PPTX 165 kb)
114_2017_1447_MOESM2_ESM.docx (25 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 (DOCX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akihiro Yoshida
    • 1
  • Shin Tejima
    • 2
  • Masayuki Sakuma
    • 2
  • Yositaka Sakamaki
    • 3
  • Ryuji Kodama
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of MorphodiversityNational Institute for Basic BiologyOkazakiJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Insect Physiology, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of AgricultureKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan

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