Journal of Molecular Medicine

, Volume 96, Issue 11, pp 1177–1187 | Cite as

Stimulation of angiogenesis using single-pulse low-pressure shock wave treatment

  • Susinder Sundaram
  • Karthi Sellamuthu
  • Krishnaveni Nagavelu
  • Harikumar R Suma
  • Arpan Das
  • Raghu Narayan
  • Dipshikha Chakravortty
  • Jagadeesh GopalanEmail author
  • Sandeep M EswarappaEmail author
Original Article


Endothelial cells respond to mechanical stimuli such as stretch. This property can be exploited with caution to induce angiogenesis which will have immense potential to treat pathological conditions associated with insufficient angiogenesis. The primary aim of this study is to test if low-pressure shock waves can be used to induce angiogenesis. Using a simple diaphragm-based shock tube, we demonstrate that a single pulse of low pressure (0.4 bar) shock wave is enough to induce proliferation in bovine aortic endothelial cells and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. We show that this is associated with enhanced Ca++ influx and phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) which is normally observed when endothelial cells are exposed to stretch. We also demonstrate the pro-angiogenic effect of shock waves of single pulse (per dose) using murine back punch wound model. Shock wave treated mice showed enhanced wound-induced angiogenesis as reflected by increased vascular area and vessel length. They also showed accelerated wound closure compared to control mice. Overall, our study shows that just a single pulse/shot (per dose) of shock waves can be used to induce angiogenesis. Importantly, we demonstrate this effect using a pulse of low-pressure shock waves (0.4 bar, in vitro and 0.15 bar, in vivo).

Key messages

  • Low-pressure single-pulse shock waves can induce endothelial cell migration and proliferation.

  • This effect is endothelial cell specific.

  • These shock waves enhance wound-induced angiogenesis in vivo.

  • These shock waves can also accelerate wound healing in vivo.


Angiogenesis Endothelial cells Wound healing Shock waves 



We thank Profs. K N Balaji and Deepak K Saini for sharing reagents.

Funding information

This work was supported by Start-up Grant (to SME) from Director of the Indian Institute of Science (Part (2A) XII Plan (506/BC)), Department of Biotechnology (DBT)—Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Partnership Program for Advanced Research in Biological Sciences and funds from UGC, India. SME is a recipient of Wellcome Trust—DBT India Alliance Intermediate Fellowship (IA/I/15/1/501833) and Start-up Grant for Young Scientists from Department of Science and Technology (DST)—Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), India (YSS/2015/000989). KS is a recipient of National Postdoctoral Fellowship from DST-SERB, India (PDF/2016/003526).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

109_2018_1690_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Central Animal FacilityIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of Aerospace EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology and Cell BiologyIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia

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