A novel route to enhance the ductile performance of MF resins by addition of polyamide amine (PA)


Addition of small proportions of polyamide amine to MF resins for the purpose of resin impregnation yields a considerable improvement in both paper toughness and tensile fracture strength. The fracture strain of impregnated paper with modified resin was enhanced by more than 100% (1.08%) as compared to comparable impregnation with neat MF resin (0.49%) without sacrificing the tensile strength.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Abdullah HH, Zhou X, Pizzi A, Merlin A (2013) Note on surface quality of plywood overlaid with mimosa (Acacia mearnsii) tannin and melamine urea formaldehyde impregnated paper: effects of moisture content of resin impregnated papers before pressing on physical properties of overlaid panels. Int Wood Product J 4(4):253–256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Gonçalves C, Paiva NT, Ferra JM, Martins J, Magalhães F, Barros-Timmons A, Carvalho L (2018) Utilization and characterization of amino resins for the production of wood-based panels with emphasis on particleboards (PB) and medium density fibreboards (MDF): a review. Holzforschung 72(8):653–671

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hansmann C, Deka M, Wimmer R, Gindl W (2006) Artificial weathering of wood surfaces modified by melamine formaldehyde resins. Holz Roh Werkst 64(3):198–203

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Hult A, Johansson M, Malmström E (1995) Dendritic resins for coating applications. Macromol Sympos 98(1):1159–1161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Kandelbauer A, Petek P, Medved S, Pizzi A, Teischinger A (2010) On the performance of a melamine–urea–formaldehyde resin for decorative paper coatings. Eur J Wood Prod 68(1):63–75

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Qiu T, Tang L, Fu Z, Tuo X, Li Y, Liu D, Yang W (2004) Modification of end-groups of aliphatic hyperbranched polyester. Polym Adv Technol 15(1–2):65–69

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Roberts RJ, Evans PD (2005) Effects of manufacturing variables on surface quality and distribution of melamine formaldehyde resin in paper laminates. Compos Part A Appl Sci 36(1):95–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Zhou X, Essawy HA, Pizzi A, Li X, Pasch H, Pretorius N, Du G (2013) Poly (amido amine)s dendrimers of different generations as components of melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF) adhesives used for particleboard production: what are the positive implications? J Polym Res 20(10):1–14

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Financial support is acknowledged from The Support Program of Yunnan Provincial Education Department (2017ZZX209); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 31800481); Yunnan Provincial Reserve Talents for Middle& Young Academic and Technical Leaders (2019HB026); “Ten-Thousand Program”-Youth Talent Support Program.

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Xiaojian Zhou or Guanben Du.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhou, X., Peng, J., Wang, W. et al. A novel route to enhance the ductile performance of MF resins by addition of polyamide amine (PA). Eur. J. Wood Prod. 78, 835–837 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-020-01555-4

Download citation


  • Melamine-formaldehyde resin
  • Ductile performance
  • Hyperbranched polyamide-amine