European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 421–437 | Cite as

Bending performance of nail-laminated timber constructed of fast-grown plantation eucalypt

  • Mohammad DerikvandEmail author
  • Hui Jiao
  • Nathan Kotlarewski
  • Michael Lee
  • Andrew Chan
  • Gregory Nolan


Australia’s hardwood plantation estate is predominantly comprised of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus, which are mainly being managed to produce woodchips—a low-value commodity export. There is an increasing interest by the timber industry in developing higher-value structural products from the low-grade timber recovered from these plantation resources. In this experimental study, for the first time, the bending performance of nail-laminated timber (NLT) and NLT-concrete composite (NLTC) floor panels constructed of the low-grade, fibre-managed Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus timber was evaluated. The test panels were constructed with various span lengths and cross-sectional configurations and subjected to vibration and four-point bending tests. The results indicated that the modulus of elasticity of the Eucalyptus nitens NLT panels (11,074.6 MPa) was comparable to that of NLT panels made of Eucalyptus globulus (11,203.2 MPa). The modulus of rupture of the Eucalyptus globulus panels was 13.8% higher than that of the Eucalyptus nitens ones. The bending properties of the NLT panels constructed of the two plantation species were superior to those of some commercially important mass laminated timber products reported in the literature. Under the limit state design loads, all the NLT and NLTC panels were still in the linear-elastic range. The fundamental natural vibration frequency values of the test panels were above the recommended minimum range of 8–10 Hz for residential and office floors. The two plantation timber species therefore demonstrated sufficient short-term bending performances to be used in the construction of higher-value structural floor products.



Bending moment capacity


Cross-laminated timber


Glue-laminated timber


Load-carrying capacity


Limit state design


Ultimate limit state


Serviceability limit state


Modulus of elasticity


Modulus of rupture


Nail-laminated timber


Nail-laminated timber-concrete


Nail-laminated timber-concrete type one


Nail-laminated timber-concrete type two


Nail-laminated timber-concrete type three

List of symbols


One-third of span length






Weight of panels


Effective stiffness of panels with no composite action


Effective stiffness of panels with full composite action

EIeff, em

Empirical effective flexural stiffness

EIeff, Ser

Empirical effective flexural stiffness at SLS load


Permanent load from the self-weight


Superimposed permanent load


Total permanent load


The second moment of area


Span length


Panel length


Actual bending moment


Design bending moment




Composite efficiency of connections


Maximum applied load


10% of maximum applied load


40% of maximum applied load


Analytical uniformly distributed load at SLS


Experimental imposed load


Experimental uniformly distributed load at SLS


Design imposed load for office buildings


Design imposed load for residential buildings


Specific load-carrying capacity


Combination of permanent and imposed loads


Serviceability deflection limit


Deflection at P1


Deflection at P2


Maximum deflection at Ps



This study was undertaken under the Australian Research Council, Centre for Forest Value, University of Tasmania, TAS, Australia (Grant Reference: IC150100004). The support from Forest and Wood Products Australia Limited (FWPA), Melbourne, VIC, Australia is acknowledged (Grant Number: PNB387-1516). The authors are also grateful of the support from Forico Pty Ltd. in providing the logs and Britton Timbers for the milling of the logs and drying and finishing of the boards.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Australian Research Council, Centre for Forest ValueUniversity of TasmaniaLauncestonAustralia
  2. 2.School of Engineering, AMC, College of Sciences and EngineeringUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  3. 3.Centre for Sustainable Architecture With Wood (CSAW)University of TasmaniaLauncestonAustralia

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