European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 453–463 | Cite as

Wheat protein hydrolysates-resorcinol–aldehydes as potential cold setting adhesives

  • Siham AmirouEmail author
  • Antonio Pizzi
  • Xuedong Xi


Environmental concerns about natural adhesive materials are leading to an increasing interest towards the development of ecological products. The development of new value-added uses for wheat proteins led us to develop protein-based wood adhesives. Different protein cold-setting resins were formulated by reacting the protein hydrolysates with different aldehydes (formaldehyde, glyoxal and glutaraldehyde). Wood bonded with cold-setting protein adhesive with different aldehydes met the requirements for interior and exterior conditions, and the characterization was similar to those of conventional PRF (phenol–resorcinol–formaldehyde) adhesives. As the results indicate, both glyoxal and glutaraldehyde are able to react with wheat protein hydrolysates and are viable alternatives to formaldehyde and prospectively seem more environmentally friendly. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis allowed the identification of the main oligomer species obtained. The analysis showed that resin prepared with glutaraldehyde is not a simple mix of resorcinol–glutaraldehyde oligomers and amino acid, but a much more complex combination of various species including amino acid-glutaraldehyde and amino acid-resorcinol oligomers.



  1. Alexa G, Chisalita D, Chirita G (1971) Reaction of dialdehyde with functional group in collagen. Rev Tech Ind Cuir 63:5–14Google Scholar
  2. Ba S, Arsenault A, Hassani T, Jones JP, Cabana H (2013) Laccase immobilization and insolubilization: from fundamentals to applications for the elimination of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment. Crit Rev Biotechnol 33:404–418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banerjee S (2017) Formation of pentosidine cross-linking in myoglobin by glyoxal: detection of fluorescent advanced glycation end product. J Fluoresc 27(4):1213–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basso MC, Pizzi A, Delmotte L (2015) A new approach to environmentally friendly protein plastics and foams. BioRes 10(4):8014–8024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. El Wakil NA, Abou-Zeid RE, Fahmy Y, Mohamed AYJ (2007) Modified wheat gluten as a binder in particleboard made from reed. J Appl Polym Sci 106(6):3592–3599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghahri S, Pizzi A, Mohebby B, Mirshokraie A, Mansouri HR (2018) Soy-based, tannin-modified plywood adhesives. J Adhes 94:218–237. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haraguchi N, Takenaka N, Najwa A, Takahara Y, Mun MK, Itsuno S (2018) Synthesis of main-chain ionic polymers of chiral imidazolidinone organocatalysts and their application to asymmetric diels–alder reactions. Adv Synth Catal. Google Scholar
  8. Kramer EA, Rentschler ME (2018) Energy-based tissue fusion for sutureless closure: applications, mechanisms, and potential for functional recovery. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 20:1–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lagel MC, Pizzi A, Redl A, Al-Marzouki FM (2015) Phenol-wheat protein-formaldehyde thermoset wood. Eur J Wood Prod 73(4):439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Migneault I, Dartiguenave C, Bertrand MJ, Waldron KC (2004) Glutaraldehyde: behavior in aqueous solution, reaction with proteins, and application to enzyme crosslinking. Biotechniques 37:790–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Morel MH, Micard V, Gontard N, Pascale C, Stephane G, Andreas R (2002) Formation and properties of wheat gluten films and coatings. Google Scholar
  12. NF EN 14080 (2013) Timber structures—gluded laminated timber and glued solid timber- requirements. AFNORGoogle Scholar
  13. NF EN 205 (2016) Adhesive-wood adhesives for non-structural applications—determination of tensile shear strength of lap joint-adhesives. AFNORGoogle Scholar
  14. Nordqvist P, Khabbaz F, Eva Malmström E (2010) Comparing bond strength and water resistance of alkali-modified soy protein isolate and wheat gluten adhesives. Int J Adhes Adhes 30:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rombouts I, Lamberts L, Celus I, Lagrain B, Brijs K, Delcour JA (2009) Wheat gluten amino acid composition analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection. J Chromatogr A 1216:5557–5562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sun X, Bian K (1999) Shear strength and water resistance of modified soy protein adhesives. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76(8):977–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Yuan C, Chen M, Luo J, Li X, Gao Q, Li J (2017) A novel water-based process produces eco-friendly bio-adhesive made from green cross-linked soybean soluble polysaccharide and soy protein. Carbohydr Polym 169:417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yue HB, Cui YD, Yin GQ, Jia ZY, Liao LW (2011) Environment-friendly cottonseed protein bioplastics: preparation and properties. Adv Mater Res 311–313:1518–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yue HB, Fernandez-Blazquez JP, Shuttleworth PS, Cui YD, Ellis G (2014) Thermomechanical relaxation and different water states in cottonseed protein derived bioplastics. RSC Adv 4:32320–32326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Zhou X, Pizzi A (2013) Tannin–resorcinol–aldehyde cold-set wood adhesives with only formaldehyde as hardener. Eur J Wood Prod 71:537–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LERMAB, University of LorraineEpinal Cedex 9France

Personalised recommendations