Advertisement

European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 439–452 | Cite as

Combustion behavior of poplar (Populus adenopoda Maxim.) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata Don.) treated with a combination of styrene-acrylic copolymer and sodium silicate

  • Thi Tham Nguyen
  • Thi Vinh Khanh Nguyen
  • Zefang XiaoEmail author
  • Fengqiang Wang
  • Zhongguo Zheng
  • Wenbo Che
  • Yanjun XieEmail author
Original
  • 86 Downloads

Abstract

Poplar (Populus adenopoda Maxim.) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata Don.) wood were treated with an aqueous solution containing styrene-acrylic copolymer (SAC) and sodium silicate (SS). The effects of this treatment on the thermal stability and combustion behavior of the wood were determined. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis showed that treatment in the presence of SS resulted in earlier thermal degradation compared to samples untreated and treated with SAC alone. Cone calorimetry showed that treatment of wood with SAC alone resulted in increased total heat release, total smoke production, and CO and CO2 concentration. Wood treated with SAC/SS was more difficult to ignite as evidenced by longer ignition time and higher limiting oxygen index; however, the treatment did not reduce the production of smoke and carbon oxide. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of residual char indicated that SS was mainly deposited in the lumina of vessel or tracheid, and SS distribution in wood was not uniform. These findings demonstrate that incorporation of SS retards the flame of SAC-treated wood; however, the fire risk is not reduced due to dense smoke and CO production.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0600203), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31470585 & 31500469), and the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (JC2015006).

References

  1. Böttcher H, Jagota C, Trepte J, Kallies K-H, Haufe H (1999) Sol–gel composite films with controlled release of biocides. J Control Release 60(1):57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Browne FL (1958) Theories of the combustion of wood and its control. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  3. Che W, Xiao Z, Han G, Zheng Z, Xie Y (2018) Radiata pine wood treatment with a dispersion of aqueous styrene/acrylic acid copolymer. Holzforschung 72(5):387–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chuang C-S, Tsai K-C, Wang M-K, Ko C-H, Ing-Luen S (2009) Impact of the intumescent formulation of styrene acrylic-based coatings on the fire performance of thin painted red lauan (Parashorea spp.) plywood. Eur J Wood Prod 67(4):407–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Vetter L, Cnudde V, Masschaele B, Jacobs P, Van Acker J (2006) Detection and distribution analysis of organosilicon compounds in wood by means of SEM-EDX and micro-CT. Mater Charact 56(1):39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donath S, Militz H, Mai C (2004) Wood modification with alkoxysilanes. Wood Sci Technol 38(7):555–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Donath S, Militz H, Mai C (2006) Creating water-repellent effects on wood by treatment with silanes. Holzforschung 60(1):40–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dong Y, Yan Y, Zhang S, Li J, Wang J (2015) Flammability and physical–mechanical properties assessment of wood treated with furfuryl alcohol and nano-SiO2. Eur J Wood Prod 73(4):457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fan F, Xia Z, Li Q, Li Z, Chen H (2013) Thermal stability of phosphorus-containing styrene–acrylic copolymer and its fire retardant performance in waterborne intumescent coatings. J Therm Anal Calorim 114(3):937–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Furuno T, Uehara T, Jodai S (1991) Combination of wood and silicate I-Impregnation by water glass and application of aluminium sulfate and calcium chloride as reactants. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 37(5):462–472Google Scholar
  11. Furuno T, Shimada K, Uehara T, Jodai S (1992) Combination of wood and silicate, 2: Wood-mineral composites using water glass and reactants of barium chloride, boric acid, and borax, and their properties. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 38(5):448–457Google Scholar
  12. Furuno T, Uehara T, Jodai S (1993) Combinations of wood and silicate, 3: some properties of wood-mineral composites using the water glass-boron compound system. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39(5):561–570Google Scholar
  13. Gao M, Li S, Sun C (2004) Thermal degradation of wood in air and nitrogen treated with basic nitrogen compounds and phosphoric acid. Combust Sci Technol 176(12):2057–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giudice CA, Pereyra AM (2007) Fire resistance of wood impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2007:1–4Google Scholar
  15. Grekin M (2006) Nordic scots pine vs. selected competing species and non-wood substitute materials in mechanical wood products: literature survey. Finnish Forest Research Institute, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  16. Harada T (2001) Time to ignition, heat release rate and fire endurance time of wood in cone calorimeter test. Fire Mater 25(4):161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hazarika A, Maji TK (2014) Properties of softwood polymer composites impregnated with nanoparticles and melamine formaldehyde furfuryl alcohol copolymer. Polym Eng Sci 54(5):1019–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill CA (2007) Wood modification: chemical, thermal and other processes. vol 5. John Wiley & Sons, West SussexGoogle Scholar
  19. Hirata T, Kawamoto S, Nishimoto T (1991) Thermogravimetry of wood treated with water-insoluble retardants and a proposal for development of fire-retardant wood materials. Fire Mater 15(1):27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hirschler M (1992) Heat release from plastic materials. In: Heat release in fires. Elsevier, London, pp 375–422Google Scholar
  21. Hurt RH, Calo JM (2001) Semi-global intrinsic kinetics for char combustion modeling. Combust Flame 125(3):1138–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ISO 5660-1 (2002) Reaction-to-fire tests—heat release, smoke production and mass loss rate—Part 1: heat release rate (cone calorimeter method); ISO International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  23. Jiang T, Feng X, Wang Q, Xiao Z, Wang F, Xie Y (2014) Fire performance of oak wood modified with N-methylol resin and methylolated guanylurea phosphate/boric acid-based fire retardant. Constr Build Mater 72(2014):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mahltig B, Swaboda C, Roessler A, Böttcher H (2008) Functionalising wood by nanosol application. J Mater Chem 18(27):3180–3192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mahr MS, Hübert T, Schartel B, Bahr H, Sabel M, Militz H (2012) Fire retardancy effects in single and double layered sol–gel derived TiO2 and SiO2-wood composites. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 64(2):452–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mai C, Militz H (2004) Modification of wood with silicon compounds. Treatment systems based on organic silicon compounds—a review. Wood Sci Technol 37(6):453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marney D, Russell L, Mann R (2008) Fire performance of wood (Pinus radiata) treated with fire retardants and a wood preservative. Fire Mater 32(6):357–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Miyashita H, Ohmi M, Tominaga H, Sawatari A, Suzuki M, Kawarada K, Mizumoto K (2000) The distribution of silicon atoms in sugi wood treated with gamma-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and its fire retardancy. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 46(5):449–455Google Scholar
  29. Nagaoka T, Kodaira A, Uehara S (1988) Relationship between density and the ignitability and combustibility of wood. Fire Saf Sci 3:197–208Google Scholar
  30. Peng Y, Han Y, Gardner DJ (2012) Southern pine impregnated with silicate solution containing cellulose nanofibrils. Holzforschung 66(6):735–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pereyra AM, Giudice CA (2009) Flame-retardant impregnants for woods based on alkaline silicates. Fire Saf J 44(4):497–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pries M, Mai C (2013) Treatment of wood with silica sols against attack by wood-decaying fungi and blue stain. Holzforschung 67(6):697–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Qu H, Wu W, Wu H, Xie J, Xu J (2010) Study on the effects of flame retardants on the thermal decomposition of wood by TG–MS. J Therm Anal Calorim 103(3):935–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rochow EG (2013) The chemistry of silicon: Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies vol 9. Elsevier, USGoogle Scholar
  35. Schartel B, Hull TR (2007) Development of fire-retarded materials—interpretation of cone calorimeter data. Fire Mater 31(5):327–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Šimkovic I, Martvon̆ová H, Maníková D, Grexa O (2005) Flame retardance of insolubilized silica inside of wood material. J Appl Polym Sci 97(5):1948–1952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Slimak KM, Slimak RA (2007) Process of using sodium silicate to create fire retardant products. US6303234B1. Google Patents, Granted PatentGoogle Scholar
  38. Spearpoint M, Quintiere J (2000) Predicting the burning of wood using an integral model. Combust Flame 123(3):308–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tanno F, Saka S, Yamamoto A, Takabe K (1998) Antimicrobial TMSAH-added wood-inorganic composites prepared by the sol–gel process. Holzforschung 52(4):365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tilak G (1985) Thermosetting acrylic resins-a literature review. Prog Org Coat 13(5):333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang J, Zhang M, Chen M, Min F, Zhang S, Ren Z, Yan Y (2006) Catalytic effects of six inorganic compounds on pyrolysis of three kinds of biomass. Thermochim Acta 444(1):110–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang F, Liu J, Lv W (2017) Thermal degradation and fire performance of wood treated with PMUF resin and boron compounds. Fire Mater 41(8):1051–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Winnik MA (2002) Interdiffusion and crosslinking in thermoset latex films. J Coat Technol 74(925):49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xiao Z, Xu J, Mai C, Militz H, Wang Q, Xie Y (2016) Combustion behavior of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood treated with a dispersion of aluminum oxychloride-modified silica. Holzforschung 70(12):1165–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xie Y, Xu J, Militz H, Wang F, Wang Q, Mai C, Xiao Z (2016) Thermo-oxidative decomposition and combustion behavior of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood modified with phenol-and melamine-formaldehyde resins. Wood Sci Technol 50(6):1125–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yan Y, Dong Y, Li J, Zhang S, Xia C, Shi SQ, Cai L (2015) Enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of Poplar through the treatment of glyoxal-urea/nano-SiO2. RSC Adv 5(67):54148–54155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yu X, Sun D, Li X (2011) Preparation and characterization of urea-formaldehyde resin-sodium montmorillonite intercalation-modified poplar. J Wood Sci 57(6):501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhong Z, Yu Q, Yao H, Wu W, Feng W, Yu L, Xu Z (2013) Study of the styrene–acrylic emulsion modified by hydroxyl-phosphate ester and its stoving varnish. Prog Org Coat 76(5):858–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Bio-based Material Science and Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Material Science and EngineeringNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Wood Industry CollegeVietnam National University of ForestryHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.College of Landscape Architecture and Interior DesignVietnam National University of ForestryHanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations