European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 37–42 | Cite as

Decay and termite resistance of pine blocks impregnated with different additives and subjected to heat treatment

  • Solafa Salman
  • Anélie Pétrissans
  • Marie France Thévenon
  • Stéphane Dumarçay
  • Philippe GérardinEmail author


Environmental pressures in France and in most European countries during the last decade have considerably changed the practises for wood protection. In this context, legislation and regulations, among which the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) and Biocidal Products Regulations (BPR), are more and more constraining leading to the development of more environmentally acceptable preservation formulations and to an increasing interest in non-biocidal alternatives like thermal or chemical modifications. Wood heat treatment has been one of the most investigated alternative methods during the last years. However, even if some of the wood properties, like its decay resistance or and dimensional stability, are improved, the overall durability of the material is not sufficient to envisage use class 3 and 4 applications, where the wood is in direct contact with soil and termites. Impregnation of borax associated to polyglycerolmethacrylate (PGMA) before thermal treatment could be an attractive alternative to improve the performance of thermally modified wood in ground contact and especially its resistance to termites taking advantage of thermal treatment to initiate polymerization of PGMA within the wood structure to limit boron mobility. Thermo-modification with or without combination of boron impregnation and PGMA improved the durability of all wood samples. Thermal treatment alone or after boron impregnation and leaching was unable to effectively protect wood blocks against termites after leaching, while bocks treated with boron and PGMA were shown to be fully resistant to termites. More surprisingly, association of thermal treatment and PGMA impregnation without boron impregnation also produced protection against termite attack. Such treatments may be valuable alternatives to extend the scope of utilization of thermally modified wood in outdoor conditions.


Boron Wood Sample Borax Fungal Exposure Termite Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the CPER 2007-2013 “Structuration du Pôle de Compétitivité Fibres Grand’Est” (Competitiveness Fibers Cluster). LERMAB is supported by a grant overseen by the French National Research Agency (ANR) as part of the “Investissements d’Avenir” program (ANR-11-LABX-0002-01, Lab of Excellence ARBRE).


  1. Baysal E, Ozaki SK, Yalinkilic MK (2004) Dimensional stabilization of wood treated with furfuryl alcohol catalysed by borates. Wood Sci Technol 38:405–415Google Scholar
  2. Candelier K, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2013) Comparison of mechanical properties of heat treated beech wood cured under nitrogen or vacuum. Polym Degrad Stab 98(9):1762–1765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. EN 113 (1986) Wood preservatives—determination of toxic values of wood preservatives against wood destroying basidiomycetes cultured on agar medium. European committee for standardization, NF EN 113Google Scholar
  4. EN 117 (1990) Wood preservatives—determination of toxic values against Reticulitermes santonensis de Feytaud (laboratory method). European committee for standardization, NF EN 117Google Scholar
  5. EN 335-2 (2007) Durability of wood and wood-based products—definition of use classes—part 2: application to solid wood. European committee for standardization, EN 335-2Google Scholar
  6. Esteves BM, Pereira HM (2009) Wood modification by heat treatment—A review. Bioresources 4(1):370–404Google Scholar
  7. European Committee for Standardization (1994) Wood preservatives—methods for measuring losses of active ingredients and other preservative ingredients from treated timber—part 2: laboratory method for obtaining samples for analysis to measure losses by leaching into water or synthetic sea water. ENV 1250-2Google Scholar
  8. Gezer ED, Michael JH, Morrell JJ (1999) Effects of glycol on leachability and efficacy of boron wood preservatives. Wood Fiber Sci 31:136–142Google Scholar
  9. Kartal SN (2006) Combined effect of boron compounds and heat treatments on wood properties: boron release and decay and termite resistance. Holzforschung 60(4):455–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kartal SN, Green F (2003) Leachability of boron from wood treated with natural and semi-synthetic polymers and calcium precipitating agent. Holz Roh Werkst 61:388–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kartal SN, Imamura Y (2004) Effects of N’-N-(1, 8-naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA-Na) and hydroxyl naphthalimide (NHA-H) on boron leachability and biological degradation of wood. Holz Roh Werkst 62:378–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kartal SN, Yoshimura T, Imamura Y (2004) Decay and termite resistance of boron-treated and chemically modified wood by in situ co-polymerisation of allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) with methyl methacrylate (MMA). Int Biodeter Biodegr 53:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kartal SN, Hwang WJ, Imamura Y (2008) Combined effect of boron compounds and heat treatments on wood properties: chemical and strength properties of wood. J Mat Process Tech 198:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kikuchi S, Maeda S (2007) Effects of fire retardant chemicals and retention on heat release rate of wood. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 53(5):276–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Korkut S, Mehmet A, Turker D (2008) The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood. Bioresour Technol 99:1861–1868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mburu F, Dumarçay S, Huber F, Pétrissans M, Gérardin P (2007) Evaluation of thermally modified Grevillea robusta heartwood as an alternative to shortage of wood resource in Kenya: characterisation of physicochemical properties and improvement of bio-resistance. Bioresour Technol 98:3478–3486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mburu F, Dumarçay S, Bocquet JF, Pétrissans M, Gérardin P (2008) Effect of chemical modifications caused by heat treatment on mechanical properties of Grevillea robusta wood. Polym Degrad Stab 93:401–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Militz H (2002) Thermal treatment of wood: European processes and their background, The international research group on wood preservation. IRG/WP 02-40241Google Scholar
  19. Mohareb A, Thévenon MF, Wozniak E, Gérardin P (2010) Effects of monoglycerides on leachability and efficacy of boron wood preservatives against decay and termites. Int Biodeter Biodegr 64:135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohareb A, Thévenon MF, Wozniak E, Gérardin P (2011) Effects of polyvinyl alcohol on leachability and efficacy of boron wood preservatives against fungal decay and termites attack. Wood Sci Technol 45(2):369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mourant D, Yang DQ, Lu X, Riedl B, Roy C (2009) Copper and boron fixation in wood by pyrolytic resins. Bioresour Technol 100:1442–1449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Obanda DN, Shupe FT, Barnes HM (2008) Reducing leaching of boron based wood preservatives—a review of research. Bioresour Technol 99:7312–7322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Obounou Akong F, Pasc A, Mutlu M, Cosgun S, Gérardin P, Gérardin-Charbonnier C (2013) Hydrogels obtained from an original catanionic system for efficient formulation of boron wood-preservatives. Int Biodeter Biodegr 77:123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patzelt M, Stingl R, Teischinger A (2002) Thermische Modifikation von Holz und deren Einfluss auf ausgewählte Holzeigenschaften (Thermal modification of wood and ist influence on selected wood properties), In Lignovisionen volume 3, Modifiziertes Holz Eigenschaften und Märkte., ISSN 1681–2808, 101–49 (In German)Google Scholar
  25. Raberg U, Daniel G, Terziev N (2012) Loss of strength in biologically degraded thermally modified wood. Bioressources 7(4):4658–4671Google Scholar
  26. Salman S, Pétrissans A, Thévenon MF, Dumarçay S, Perrin D, Pollier B, Gérardin P (2014) Development of new wood treatments combining boron impregnation and thermo modification—effect of additives on boron leachability. Eur J Wood Prod 72:355–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Soulounganga P, Marion C, Huber F, Gérardin P (2003) Synthesis of polyglycerol methacrylate and its application to wood dimensional stabilization. J Appl Polym Sci 88:743–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Soulounganga P, Loubinoux B, Wozniak E, Lemor A, Gérardin P (2004) Improvement of wood properties by impregnation with polyglycerol methacrylate. Holz Roh Werkst 62:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Surini T, Charrier F, Malvestio J, Charrier B, Moubarik A, Castéra P, Grelier S (2012) Physical properties and termite durability of maritime pine Pinus pinaster Ait heat-treated under vacuum pressure. Wood Sci Technol 46:487–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Temiz A, Alfredsen G, Eikenes M, Terziev N (2008) Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates. Bioresour Technol 99:2102–2106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thévenon MF, Pizzi A (2003) Polyborate ions influence on the durability of wood treated with non-toxic protein borate preservatives. Holz Roh Werkst 61:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thévenon MF, Pizzi A, Haluk JP (1997) Non-toxic albumin and soja protein borates as ground-contact wood preservatives. Holz Roh Werkst 55:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thévenon MF, Pizzi A, Haluk JP (1998) Protein borates as non-toxic, long-term, wide-spectrum, ground- contact wood preservatives. Holzforschung 52:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tomak ED, Hughes M, Yildiz UC, Viitanen H (2011) The combined effects of boron and oil heat treatment on beech and Scots pine wood properties. Part 1: boron leaching, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical composition. J Mater Sci 46(3):598–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Toussaint-Dauvergne E, Soulounganga P, Gérardin P, Loubinoux B (2000) Glycerol/glyoxal: a new boron fixation system for wood preservation and dimensional stabilization. Holzforschung 54:123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vernois M (2001) Heat treatment of wood in France—state of art, Proceedings of special seminar review on heat treatment of wood, Antibes, France february 9. BFH the federal research centre for forestry and forest products, Hamburg, 39–46Google Scholar
  37. Yildiz S, Gezerb D, Yildiz C (2006) Mechanical and chemical behavior of spruce wood modified by heat. Build Environ 41:1762–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Solafa Salman
    • 1
  • Anélie Pétrissans
    • 1
  • Marie France Thévenon
    • 2
  • Stéphane Dumarçay
    • 1
  • Philippe Gérardin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Etudes et de Recherche sur le Matériau Bois, EA 4370-USC INRAUniversité de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et TechnologiesVandoeuvre-lès-Nancy CedexFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Préservation des boisUnité de RecherchesBioWooEB, CIRAD, TA B 114/16Montpellier Cedex 5France

Personalised recommendations