Prävention von Infektionen, die von Gefäßkathetern ausgehen

Teil 2 - Periphervenöse Verweilkanülen und arterielle Katheter Empfehlung der Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO) beim Robert Koch-Institut


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



Diese Empfehlungen wurden ehrenamtlich und ohne Einflussnahme kommerzieller Interessengruppen im Auftrag der Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention erarbeitet von Christine Geffers, Axel Kramer, Simone Scheithauer, Sebastian Schulz-Stübner, Arne Simon (Leiter der Arbeitsgruppe), Heidemarie Suger-Wiedeck und Matthias Trautmann. Die Empfehlung wurde durch die Arbeitsgruppe vorbereitet und nach ausführlicher Diskussion in der Kommission abgestimmt.


  1. 1.
    Small H, Adams D, Casey AL, Crosby CT, Lambert PA, Elliott T (2008) Efficacy of Adding 2 % (w/v) Chlorhexidine Gluconate to 70 % (v/v) Isopropyl Alcohol for Skin Disinfection Prior to Peripheral Venous Cannulation. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29(10):963–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    van der Mee-Marquet NL (2007) Efficacy and safety of a two-step method of skin preparation for peripheral intravenous catheter insertion: a prospective multi-centre randomised trial. BMC Anesthesiol 7:1PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aziz AM (2009) Improving peripheral IV cannula care: implementing high-impact interventions. Br J Nurs 18(20):1242–1246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pujol M, Hornero A, Saballs M et al (2007) Clinical epidemiology and outcomes of peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections at a university-affiliated hospital. J Hosp Infect 67(1):22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O’Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA et al (2011) Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Am J Infect Control 39(4 Suppl 1):S1–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boyd S, Aggarwal I, Davey P, Logan M, Nathwani D (2011) Peripheral intravenous catheters: the road to quality improvement and safer patient care. J Hosp Infect 77(1):37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zingg W, Pittet D (2009) Peripheral venous catheters: an under-evaluated problem. Int J Antimicrob Agents 34(Suppl 4):S38–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reilly J, Stewart S, Allardice G et al (2007) NHS Scotland national HAI prevalence survey. Final Report. Health Protection Scotland. , GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kampf G, Reise G, James C, Gittelbauer K, Gosch J, Alpers B (2013) Improving patient safety during insertion of peripheral venous catheters: an observational intervention study. GMS Hyg Infect Control 8(2):Doc18PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morse L, McDonald M (2009) Failure of a poster-based educational programme to improve compliance with peripheral venous catheter care in a tertiary hospital. A clinical audit. J Hosp Infect 72(3):221–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO) (2002) Prävention Gefäßkatheter-assoziierter Infektionen. Empfehlung der Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention am Robert Koch-Institut. Bundesgesundheitsbl 25(11):907–924Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Curran E, Reilly J (2008) Optimising peripheral vascular catheter care offers the greatest potential for prevention of vascular-device-related infections. J Hosp Infect 69(3):307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Helm RE, Klausner JD, Klemperer JD, Flint LM, Huang E (2015) Accepted but unacceptable: peripheral IV catheter failure. J Infus Nurs 38(3):189–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horan TC, Andrus M, Dudeck MA (2008) CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of health care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the acute care setting. Am J Infect Control 36(5):309–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ezingeard E, Coudrot M, Guyomarc’h S et al (2009) Evaluation of colonisation of peripheral venous catheters inserted by prehospital emergency service teams (SMUR) in France. J Hosp Infect 72(2):169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang L, Morrison M, Nimmo GR et al (2013) Molecular investigation of bacterial communities on the inner and outer surfaces of peripheral venous catheters. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 32(8):1083–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Crnich CJ, Maki DG (2002) The promise of novel technology for the prevention of intravascular device-related bloodstream infection. I. Pathogenesis and short-term devices. Clin Infect Dis 34(9):1232–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Trinh TT, Chan PA, Edwards O et al (2011) Peripheral venous catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 32(6):579–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Flinterman LE, Van Der Meer FJ, Rosendaal FR, Doggen CJ (2008) Current perspective of venous thrombosis in the upper extremity. J Thromb Haemost 6(8):1262–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Coello R, Charlett A, Ward V et al (2003) Device-related sources of bacteraemia in English hospitals-opportunities for the prevention of hospital-acquired bacteraemia. J Hosp Infect 53(1):46–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maki DG, Kluger DM, Crnich CJ (2006) The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of 200 published prospective studies. Mayo Clin Proc 81(9):1159–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wilson D, Verklan MT, Kennedy KA (2007) Randomized trial of percutaneous central venous lines versus peripheral intravenous lines. J Perinatol 27(2):92–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bruno M, Brennan D, Redpath MB et al (2011) Peripheral-venous-catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: a multi-factorial approach to reducing incidence. J Hosp Infect 79(2):173–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Honda H, Krauss MJ, Jones JC, Olsen MA, Warren DK (2010) The value of infectious diseases consultation in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Am J Med 123(7):631–637PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Corey GR (2009) Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections: definitions and treatment. Clin Infect Dis 48(Suppl 4):254–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rieg S, Peyerl-Hoffmann G, de With K et al (2009) Mortality of S. aureus bacteremia and infectious diseases specialist consultation – a study of 521 patients in Germany. J Infect 59(4):232–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thomas MG, Morris AJ (2005) Cannula-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: outcome in relation to treatment. Intern Med J 35(6):319–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fowler VG Jr., Justice A, Moore C et al (2005) Risk factors for hematogenous complications of intravascular catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Clin Infect Dis 40(5):695–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chu VH, Crosslin DR, Friedman JY et al (2005) Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes. Am J Med 118(12):1416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lalani T, Chu VH, Grussemeyer CA et al (2008) Clinical outcomes and costs among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and orthopedic device infections. Scand J Infect Dis 40(11–12):973–977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barlow G, Palniappan S, Mukherjee R, Jones M, Nathwani D (2002) Unnecessary peripheral intravenous catheterisation on an acute medical admissions unit: a preliminary study. Eur J Intern Med 13(6):380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goddard L, Clayton S, Peto TE, Bowler IC (2006) The „just-in-case venflon“: effect of surveillance and feedback on prevalence of peripherally inserted intravascular devices. J Hosp Infect 64(4):401–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thomas A, Hayes P, Lockie T, Harrington D (2006) Venflons: why can’t we resist putting them in? J Hosp Infect 63(1):108–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Au AK, Rotte MJ, Grzybowski RJ, Ku BS, Fields JM (2012) Decrease in central venous catheter placement due to use of ultrasound guidance for peripheral intravenous catheters. Am J Emerg Med 30(9):1950–1954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shokoohi H, Boniface K, McCarthy M et al (2013) Ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous access program is associated with a marked reduction in central venous catheter use in noncritically ill emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med 61(2):198–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ricard JD, Salomon L, Boyer A et al (2013) Central or peripheral catheters for initial venous access of ICU patients: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med 41(9):2108–2115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Salgueiro-Oliveira A, Parreira P, Veiga P (2012) Incidence of phlebitis in patients with peripheral intravenous catheters: The influence of some risk factors. Austral J Adv Nurs 30(2):32–39Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garland JS, Buck RK, Maloney P et al (1995) Comparison of 10 % povidone-iodine and 0.5 % chlorhexidine gluconate for the prevention of peripheral intravenous catheter colonization in neonates: a prospective trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14(6):510–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Garland JS, Dunne WM Jr., Havens P et al (1992) Peripheral intravenous catheter complications in critically ill children: a prospective study. Pediatrics 89(6):1145–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Garland JS, Nelson DB, Cheah TE, Hennes HH, Johnson TM (1987) Infectious complications during peripheral intravenous therapy with Teflon catheters: a prospective study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6(10):918–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO) (2011) Anforderungen an die Hygiene bei Injektionen und Punktionen. Empfehlung der Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention beim Robert Koch-Institut (RKI). Bundesgesundheitsbl 54(9/10):1135–1144Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Royal College of Physicians (RCP), Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC)(Eds)(2014) Prevention of intravascular catheter related infection in Ireland. Partial update of 2009. Summary of Recommendations.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morris W, Heong TM (2008) Strategies for preventing peripheral intravenous cannula infection. Br J Nurs 17(19):S14–S21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    (2016) Händehygiene in Einrichtungen des Gesundheitswesens. Bundesgesundheitsblatt – Gesundheitsforschung – Gesundheitsschutz 59(9):1189–1220Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hirschmann H, Fux L, Podusel J et al (2001) The influence of hand hygiene prior to insertion of peripheral venous catheters on the frequency of complications. J Hosp Infect 49(3):199–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tomford JW, Hershey CO, McLaren CE, Porter DK, Cohen DI (1984) Intravenous therapy team and peripheral venous catheter-associated complications. A prospective controlled study. Arch Intern Med 144(6):1191–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Soifer NE, Borzak S, Edlin BR, Weinstein RA (1998) Prevention of peripheral venous catheter complications with an intravenous therapy team: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 158(5):473–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Weinstein MP (2003) Blood culture contamination: persisting problems and partial progress. J Clin Microbiol 41(6):2275–2278PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Grol R, Grimshaw J (2003) From best evidence to best practice: effective implementation of change in patients’ care. Lancet 362(9391):1225–1230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maki DG, Ringer M (1987) Evaluation of dressing regimens for prevention of infection with peripheral intravenous catheters. Gauze, a transparent polyurethane dressing, and an iodophor-transparent dressing. JAMA 258(17):2396–2403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Frigerio S, Di Giulio P, Gregori D et al (2012) Managing peripheral venous catheters: an investigation on the efficacy of a strategy for the implementation of evidence-based guidelines. J Eval Clin Pract 18(2):414–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Madeo M, Martin C, Nobbs A (1997) A randomized study comparing IV 3000 (transparent polyurethane dressing) to a dry gauze dressing for peripheral intravenous catheter sites. J Intraven Nurs 20(5):253–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, New K (2015) Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD007798Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marschall J, Mermel LA, Fakih M et al (2014) Strategies to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 35(7):753–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Romano S, Bourdier A, Parer S et al (2013) Peripheral venous catheter and bloodstream infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa after a contaminated preoperative shower. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 34(5):544–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fakih MG, Jones K, Rey JE et al (2013) Peripheral venous catheter care in the emergency department: education and feedback lead to marked improvements. Am J Infect Control 41(6):531–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fakih MG, Jones K, Rey JE et al (2012) Sustained improvements in peripheral venous catheter care in non-intensive care units: a quasi-experimental controlled study of education and feedback. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 33(5):449–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tsuchida T, Makimoto K, Toki M, Sakai K, Onaka E, Otani Y (2007) The effectiveness of a nurse-initiated intervention to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections in an urban acute hospital: an intervention study with before and after comparison. Int J Nurs Stud 44(8):1324–1333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Freixas N, Bella F, Limon E, Pujol M, Almirante B, Gudiol F (2013) Impact of a multimodal intervention to reduce bloodstream infections related to vascular catheters in non-ICU wards: a multicentre study. Clin Microbiol Infect 19(9):838–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bregenzer T, Conen D, Sakmann P, Widmer AF (1998) Is routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters necessary? Arch Intern Med 158(2):151–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rickard CM, Webster J, Wallis MC et al (2012) Routine versus clinically indicated replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. Lancet 380(9847):1066–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard C, Hall J (2010) Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD007798Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, New K (2013) Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD007798Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rickard CM, McCann D, Munnings J, McGrail MR (2010) Routine resite of peripheral intravenous devices every 3 days did not reduce complications compared with clinically indicated resite: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Med 8:53PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lai KK (1998) Safety of prolonging peripheral cannula and i. v. tubing use from 72 hours to 96 hours. Am J Infect Control 26(1):66–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Van Donk P, Rickard CM, McGrail MR, Doolan G (2009) Routine replacement versus clinical monitoring of peripheral intravenous catheters in a regional hospital in the home program: A randomized controlled trial. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 30(9):915–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Collignon PJ (1994) Intravascular catheter associated sepsis: a common problem. The Australian Study on Intravascular Catheter Associated Sepsis. Med J Aust 161(6):374–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Maki DG, Ringer M (1991) Risk factors for infusion-related phlebitis with small peripheral venous catheters. A randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 114(10):845–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cicolini G, Manzoli L, Simonetti V et al (2014) Phlebitis risk varies by peripheral venous catheter site and increases after 96 hours: a large multi-centre prospective study. J Adv Nurs 70(11):2539–2549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Curran ET, Coia JE, Gilmour H, McNamee S, Hood J (2000) Multi-centre research surveillance project to reduce infections/phlebitis associated with peripheral vascular catheters. J Hosp Infect 46(3):194–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Safdar N, McKinley LM, Davidson B, Broome C, Schenk J (2011) Recommendations to replace peripheral venous catheters every 72–96 hours: is a single reference enough? J Hosp Infect 79(2):172–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gura KM (2009) Is there still a role for peripheral parenteral nutrition? Nutr Clin Pract 24(6):709–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kuwahara T, Asanami S, Tamura T, Kaneda S (1998) Effects of pH and osmolality on phlebitic potential of infusion solutions for peripheral parenteral nutrition. J Toxicol Sci 23(1):77–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mestre Roca G, Berbel Bertolo C, Tortajada Lopez P et al (2012) Assessing the influence of risk factors on rates and dynamics of peripheral vein phlebitis: an observational cohort study. Med Clin (Barc) 139(5):185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kerenyi M, Batai R, Juhasz V, Batai I (2004) Lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA) has an antibacterial effect in vitro. J Hosp Infect 56(1):75–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA, Andrew M (1998) Benefit of heparin in peripheral venous and arterial catheters: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 316(7136):969–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Trautmann M, Dannecker G, Kretz F, Vochem M (2006) Intermittierende Spülung peripherer Venenverweilkanülen Pädiatrische Studien zur Verwendung von verdünntem Heparin vs. Kochsalzlösung. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 154(3):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Simon A, Trautmann M (2008) Needleless connection valves-commentary from a clinical perspective. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 133(5):206–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Trautmann M, Kreutzberger M, Bobic R, Regnath T (2012) Disinfection of a needleless connector with alcohol-based disinfectant wipes – an experimental study. Hyg Med 37(9):354–359Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pohl F, Hartmann W, Holzmann T, Gensicke S, Kolbl O, Hautmann MG (2014) Risk of infection due to medical interventions via central venous catheters or implantable venous access port systems at the middle port of a three-way cock: luer lock cap vs. luer access split septum system (Q-Syte). Bmc Infect Dis 14:41PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Robert Koch-Institut (RKI) (2016) Zu spezifischen Fragen bezüglich Rekonstitution, Zubereitung und Applikation von Arzneimitteln und Infusionslösungen sowie zur Hautantiseptik – Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe KRINKO-BfArM-RKI. Epid Bull 20:173–178Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hasselberg D, Ivarsson B, Andersson R, Tingstedt B (2010) The handling of peripheral venous catheters – from non-compliance to evidence-based needs. J Clin Nurs 19(23–24):3358–3363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sriupayo A, Inta N, Boonkongrat S et al (2014) Effectiveness of peripheral vascular catheter care bundle in the Pediatric Nursing Service, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Chiang Mai Med J 53(2):63–73Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ahlqvist M, Bogren A, Hagman S et al (2006) Handling of peripheral intravenous cannulae: effects of evidence-based clinical guidelines. J Clin Nurs 15(11):1354–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    D’Alessandro D, Agodi A, Auxilia F et al (2014) Prevention of healthcare associated infections: medical and nursing students’ knowledge in Italy. Nurse Educ Today 34(2):191–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Scheithauer S, Haefner H, Schwanz T et al (2012) Hand hygiene in medical students: performance, education and knowledge. Int J Hyg Environ Health 215(5):536–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Saint S, Kowalski CP, Banaszak-Holl J, Forman J, Damschroder L, Krein SL (2010) The importance of leadership in preventing healthcare-associated infection: results of a multisite qualitative study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 31(9):901–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Zingg W, Imhof A, Maggiorini M, Stocker R, Keller E, Ruef C (2009) Impact of a prevention strategy targeting hand hygiene and catheter care on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Crit Care Med 37(7):2167–2173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Meier PA, Fredrickson M, Catney M, Nettleman MD (1998) Impact of a dedicated intravenous therapy team on nosocomial bloodstream infection rates. Am J Infect Control 26(4):388–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Miller JM, Goetz AM, Squier C, Muder RR (1996) Reduction in nosocomial intravenous device-related bacteremias after institution of an intravenous therapy team. J Intraven Nurs 19(2):103–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Krein SL, Damschroder LJ, Kowalski CP, Forman J, Hofer TP, Saint S (2010) The influence of organizational context on quality improvement and patient safety efforts in infection prevention: a multi-center qualitative study. Soc Sci Med 71(9):1692–1701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mermel LA, Allon M, Bouza E et al (2009) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infection: 2009 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 49(1):1–45PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Johansson ME, Pilhammar E, Khalaf A, Willman A (2008) Registered nurses’ adherence to clinical guidelines regarding peripheral venous catheters: a structured observational study. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 5(3):148–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ahlqvist M, Berglund B, Wiren M, Klang B, Johansson E (2009) Accuracy in documentation – a study of peripheral venous catheters. J Clin Nurs 18(13):1945–1952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Forberg U, Johansson E, Ygge BM, Wallin L, Ehrenberg A (2012) Accuracy in documentation of peripheral venous catheters in paediatric care: an intervention study in electronic patient records. J Clin Nurs 21(9–10):1339–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Heinrich I, Gessner S, Wegner C, Heidecke CD, Kramer A (2013) Prospective pilot study on the incidence of infections caused by peripheral venous catheters at a general surgical ward. GMS Hyg Infect Control 8(1):Doc06PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    O’Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP et al (2002) Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Pediatrics 110(5):e51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Safdar N, O’Horo JC, Maki DG (2013) Arterial catheter-related bloodstream infection: incidence, pathogenesis, risk factors and prevention. J Hosp Infect 85(3):189–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Esteve F, Pujol M, Perez XL et al (2011) Bacteremia related with arterial catheter in critically ill patients. J Infect 63(2):139–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lucet JC, Bouadma L, Zahar JR et al (2010) Infectious risk associated with arterial catheters compared with central venous catheters. Crit Care Med 38(4):1030–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Traore O, Liotier J, Souweine B (2005) Prospective study of arterial and central venous catheter colonization and of arterial- and central venous catheter-related bacteremia in intensive care units. Crit Care Med 33(6):1276–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Koh DB, Gowardman JR, Rickard CM, Robertson IK, Brown A (2008) Prospective study of peripheral arterial catheter infection and comparison with concurrently sited central venous catheters. Crit Care Med 36(2):397–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gowardman JR, Lipman J, Rickard CM (2010) Assessment of peripheral arterial catheters as a source of sepsis in the critically ill: a narrative review. J Hosp Infect 75(1):12–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hammarskjold F, Berg S, Hanberger H, Malmvall BE (2010) Low incidence of arterial catheter infections in a Swedish intensive care unit: risk factors for colonisation and infection. J Hosp Infect 76(2):130–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lorente L, Jimenez A, Martin MM et al (2011) Lower incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection in cubital than in femoral artery access. Scand J Infect Dis 43(10):814–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Handlogten KS, Wilson GA, Clifford L, Nuttall GA, Kor DJ (2014) Brachial artery catheterization: an assessment of use patterns and associated complications. Anesth Analg 118(2):288–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rajaram SS, Desai NK, Kalra A et al (2013) Pulmonary artery catheters for adult patients in intensive care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD003408Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Cobb DK, High KP, Sawyer RG et al (1992) A controlled trial of scheduled replacement of central venous and pulmonary-artery catheters. N Engl J Med 327(15):1062–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mermel LA, Maki DG (1994) Infectious complications of Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheters. Pathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention, and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149(4 Pt 1):1020–1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rupp SM, Apfelbaum JL, Blitt C et al (2012) Practice guidelines for central venous access: a report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Central Venous Access. Anesthesiology 116(3):539–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    O’Horo JC, Maki DG, Krupp AE, Safdar N (2014) Arterial catheters as a source of bloodstream infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 42(6):1334–1339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Personalised recommendations