Maxillofacial trauma in the gulf countries: a systematic review

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this review was to determine the prevalence, major causative factors and the most common sites of Maxillofacial Trauma in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries.

Methods

All articles that were published in the English language in the databases such as Google Scholar, EBSCO, PubMed, NCBI, Medline, COCHRANE, ELSEVIER and SCOPUS were reviewed for MFT from GCC during the last 23 years.

Results

A total of 19,151 patients (16,567 males and 2584 females) (86–14%) with an age range between 0 and 97 years were included in the study. In all of the Gulf countries males outnumber females in terms of maxillofacial injuries with a ratio of 6.4:1. The mandible was the most common site of trauma followed by the maxilla. Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) was the most common cause of injury in the GCC followed by falls.

Conclusion

Maxillofacial injuries are highly prevalent, distributed among the Gulf countries, and is mainly caused by RTAs especially among males who are highly prone to MFT in the gulf. The reasons are due to lack of road safety culture and weak enactment of traffic legislation, other possible factors include intrinsic car safety features, high speed driving and the amount/use of highways in these societies.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

Data availability

Not applicable.

Code availability

Not applicable for that section.

References

  1. 1.

    Alrouh H, Ismail A, Cheema S. Demographic and health indicators in Gulf Cooperation Council nations with an emphasis on Qatar. J Local Global Health Perspect. 2018;1:3.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Azevedo A, Trent R, Ellis A. Population-based analysis of 10,766 hospitalizations for mandibular fractures in California, 1991 to 1993. J Trauma Acute Care. 1998;45(6):1084–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Busuito M, Smith D, Robertson M. Mandibular fractures in an urban trauma center. The J Trauma. 1986;26(9):826–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Huelke DF. Location of mandibular fractures related to teeth and edentulous regions. J Oral Surgery Anesth Hosp Dent. 1964;22:396–405.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ansari M. Maxillofacial fractures in Hamedan province, Iran: a retrospective study (1987–2001). J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2004;32(1):28–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Oji C. Jaw fractures in Enugu, Nigeria, 1985–95. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999;37(2):106–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Adebayo E, Ajike O, Adekeye E. Analysis of the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in Kaduna, Nigeria. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;41(6):396–400.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Fasola A, Nyako E, Obiechina A, Arotiba J. Trends in the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures in Nigeria. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61(10):1140–3.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Porter M, Lownie M, Cleaton-Jones P. Maxillofacial injury: a retrospective analysis of time lapse between injury and treatment in a South African academic maxillofacial and oral surgery unit. South Afr J Surg. 2013;51(4):138–42.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Mogajane B, Mabongo M. Epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures at two maxillofacial units in South Africa. South Afr Dent J. 2018;73(3):132–6.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Atilgan S, Carvalho H, Cherpitel C, Ye Y. Mandibular fractures: a comparative analysis between young and adult patients in the southeast region of Turkey. J Appl Oral Sci. 2010;81(2):7–22.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Ranchod S, Morkel JA. Substance abuse and maxillofacial injuries. South Afr Dent J. 2014;69(19):454–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Bamjee Y, Lownie J, Cleaton-Jones P. Maxillofacial injuries in a group of South Africans under 18 years of age. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;34(4):298–302.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Al Ahmed H, Jaber M, Abu Fanas S, Karas M. The pattern of maxillofacial fractures in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: a review of 230 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:166–70.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Simsek S, Simsek B, Abubaker AO, Laskin DM. A comparative study of mandibular fractures in the United States and Turkey. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;36:395–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Chrcanovic B. Factors influencing the incidence of maxillofacial fractures. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;16(1):3–17.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Qudah M, Bataineh A. A retrospective study of selected oral and maxillofacial fractures in a group of Jordanian children. Oral Med Oral Surg Oral Pathol. 2002;94(3):310–4.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lida S, Matsuya T. Paediatric maxillofacial fractures: the etiological characters and fracture patterns. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2002;30(4):237–41.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Gururaj G. 2006. Road traffic injury prevention in India. Bangalore, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences. (Publication No. 56). (http://www.nimhans.kar.nic.in/epidemiology/doc/ep_ft22.pdf, consultado el 7 de abrilde 2009).

  20. 20.

    Cheema S, Amin F. Incidence and causes of maxillofacial skeletal injuries at the Mayo Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;44:232–4.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ajike S, Adebayo E, Amanyiewe E, Ononiwu C. An epidemiologic survey of maxillofacial fractures and concomitant injuries in Kaduna, Nigeria. Niger J Surg Res. 2005;7(3):251–5.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Maliska M, Lima Junior S, Gil J. Analysis of 185 maxillofacial fractures in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Braz Oral Res. 2009;23(3):268–74.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Lawoyin D, Lawoyin J, Lawoyin T. Fractures of the facial skeleton in Tabuk North West Armed Forces Hospital: a five year review. Afr J Med Med Sci. 1996;25:385–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Al Ghamdi A. Road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia causes effects and solutions General traffic Department Saudi Arabia. Publ Health. 1998;114(1):37–9.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Ansari S, Akhdar F, Mandoorah M, Moutaery K. Causes and effects of road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. Public Health. 2000;114(1):37–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Samman M, Ahmed SW, Beshir H, Almohammadi T, Patil S. Incidence and pattern of mandible fractures in the Madinah region: a retrospective study. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2018;9:59.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Almasri M, Amin D, Aboola A, Shargawi J. Maxillofacial fractures in Makka City in Saudi Arabia; an 8-year review of practice. Am J Public Health Res. 2015;3:56–9.

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Abdullah W, Al-Mutairi K, Al-Ali Y, Al-Soghier A, Al-Shnwani A. Patterns and etiology of maxillofacial fractures in Riyadh City Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J. 2013;25:33–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Ahmed MA, Alsehaimy M, Al-Sebaei M, Jadu F. A retrospective study of the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma in Jeddah. Saudi Arabia J Am Sci. 2015;11:57–61.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Rabi A, Khateery S. Maxillofacial trauma in Al Madina region of Saudi Arabia: a 5-year retrospective study. Asian J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol. 2002;14:10–4.

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Nowku A. Retrospective Analysis of 1206 maxillofacial fractures in an urban Saudi hospital: 8-year review. Pakistan Oral Dent J. 2004;24:13–6.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Alghamdi S, Alhabab R, Alsalmi S. The epidemiology, incidence and patterns of maxillofacial fractures in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. Int J Oral Maxillofacial Surg. 2007;46:255.

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Al-Aanazi Y, Latif K, Alrwuili M, Salfiti F, Bilal M. Incidence of maxillofacial injuries reported in Al-Qurayyat General hospital over a period of 3 years. Prensa Med Argent. 2006;102:10–6.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Alqahtani A. Patterns of maxillofacial fractures associated with assault injury in khamis mushait city and related factors. Egypt J Hospital Med. 2018;70:325–8.

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Al-Bokhamseen M, Salma R, Al-Bodbaij M. Patterns of maxillofacial fractures in Hofuf, Saudi Arabia: a 10-year retrospective case series. Saudi Dent J. 2019;31:129–36.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Albeshir H, Ahmed S, Awaji M, Albalawi S, Samman M, Alahmadi H. Pediatric maxillofacial injuries in Madinah - a retrospective study. J Public Health Policy Plann. 2018;2:73–80.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Almasri M. Severity and causality of maxillofacial trauma in southern region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J. 2013;25:107–10.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Alqahtani F, Bishawi K, Jaber M. Analysis of the pattern of maxillofacial injuries in Saudi Arabia: a systematic review. Saudi Dent J. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2019.08.008.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Aldwsari O, Aldosari K, Alzahrani M, et al. Associated head injuries and survival rate of patients with maxillofacial fractures in road traffic accident: a prospective study in Saudi Arabia. J Family Med Prim Care. 2018;7(6):1548–54.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Klenk G, Kovacs A. Etiology and patterns of facial fractures in the United Arab Emirates. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:78–84.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Al-Khateeb T, Abdullah F. Craniomaxillofacial injuries in the United Arab Emirates: a retrospective study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1094–101.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Raval C, Rashidudding M. Airway management in patients with maxillofacial trauma—a retrospective study of 177 cases. Saudi J Anaesthesia. 2011;5:9–14.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Firas N, Samir T, Ismail F. Pattern of traumatic maxillofacial injuries among the young adult Qatari population during the years 2006-2009. A retrospective study. Egypt J Ear Nose Throat Allied Sci. 2013;14:1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Al-Sheikhly. Pattern of trauma in the districts of Doha/Qatar: causes and suggestions. J Medical Res. 2012;1:25–8.

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Al-Hassani A, Ahmad K, El-Menyar A, et al. Prevalence and patterns of maxillofacial trauma: a retrospective descriptive study. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-019-01174-6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Oikarinen K, Schutz P, Thalib L, Sándor G, Clokie C, Meisami T, Safar S, Moilanen M, Belal M. Differences in the etiology of mandibular fractures in Kuwait, Canada, and Finland. Dent Traumatol. 2004;20:241–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Koshy JC, Feldman EM, Chike-Obi CJ. Pearls of mandibular trauma management. Semin Plastic Surg. 2010;24(4):357–74.

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Kamulegeya A, Lakor F, Kabenge K. Oral maxillofacialfractures seen at a Ugandan tertiary hospital: a six-month prospective study. Clinics. 2009;64(9):843–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Eggensperger N, Smolka K, Scheidegger B. A 3-year survey of assault-related maxillofacial fractures in central Switzerland. J Cranio-maxillofac Surg. 2007;35(7):161–7.

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Mwaniki D, Guthua S. Occurrence and characteristics of mandibular fractures in Nairobi, Kenya. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1990;28(3):200–2.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Adekeye E. The pattern of fractures of the facial skeletonin Kanduna, Nigeria. A survey of 1447 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol. 1980;49(6):491–5.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Lee J, Cho B, Park W. A 4 year retrospective study official fractures in Jeju, Korea. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2010;38(3):192–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Ellis E, Moos K, El-Attar A. Ten years of mandibular fractures: an analysis of 2137 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1985;2:120–9.

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Gassner R, Tuli T, Hachl O, Rudisch A, Ulmer H. Craniomaxillofacial trauma: a 10 year review of 9543 cases with 21067 injuries. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2003;31(1):51–61.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Thorn H, Iso-Kungas P, Iizuka T, Lindqvist C, Tornwall J. Changing trends in causes and patterns of facial fractures in children. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:318–24.

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Zhou H, Liu Q, Yang R, Li Z, Li Z. Maxillofacial fractures in women and men: a 10-year retrospective study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;73(11):2181–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Subhashraj K, Nandakumar N, Ravindran C. Review of maxillofacial injuries in Chennai, India: a study of 2748 cases. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:637–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Scolozzi P, Martinez A, Jaques B. Treatment of linear mandibular fractures using a single 20-mm AO locking reconstruction plate: is a second plate necessary? J Oral Maxillofac. 2009;67:2636–8.

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Haug R, Foss J. Maxillofacial injuries in the pediatric patient. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol. 2000;90(2):126–34.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Zimmermann C, Troulis M, Kaban L. Pediatric facial fractures: recent advances in prevention, diagnosis and management. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;34:823–33.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Gassner R, Tuli T, Hächl O, Moreira R, Ulmer H. Craniomaxillofacial trauma in children: a review of 3,385 cases with 6,060 injuries in 10 years. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;64(4):399–407.

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Shaikh ZS, Worrall SF. Epidemiology of facial trauma in a sample of patients aged 1–18 years. Injury. 2002;33:669–71.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Bakardjiev A, Pechalova P. Maxillofacial fractures in Southern Bulgaria: retrospective study of 1706 cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2007;35(3):147–50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Devadiga A, Prasad K. Epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures and concomitant injuries in a craniofacial unit: a retrospective study. Internet J Epidemiol. 2007;5(2):1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Cheema S. Zygomatic bone fracture. J Coll Phys Surg Pak. 2004;14:337–9.

    Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Ferrerira P, Amarante J, Sliva A, Pereira J, Cardoso M, Rodrigues J. Etiology and pattern of pediatric mandibular fracture in Portugal: a retrospective study of 10 years. J Craniofac Surg. 2004;15:384–91.

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Afzal A, Shah R. Causes of maxillofacial injury: a three year study. J Surg Pak. 2001;6:25–7.

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Fasola A, Obiechina A, Arotiba J. Incidence and pattern of maxillofacial fractures in the elderly. Int Journal Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;32(2):206–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Kadkhodaie M. Three-year review of facial fractures at teaching hospital in northern Iran. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;44(3):229–31.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Hill C, Crosher R, Caroll M, Mason D. Facial fractures; the result of a prospective four-year-study. J Maxillofac Surg. 1984;12:267–70.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Voss R. The etiology of maxillofacial fractures in Norwegian patients. J Maxillofac Surg. 1982;10:146–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Khan M, Ahmed W. A comparative study of zygomatic bone fracture with transcutaneous hook traction versus Gillies approach. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2003;53:47–50.

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Grene D, Raven R. Epidemiology of facial injury in blunt assault. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;123:923–8.

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Adi M, Ogeden G, Chisholm D. An analysis of mandibular fracture in Dundee, Scotland (1977–1985). Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1990;28:194–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Mathog R, Toma V, Clayman L, Wolf S. Nonunion of the mandible: an analysis of contributing factors. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;58(7):746–52.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Bowley DM, Snyman T, Cherry R, Rein P. Substance abuse and major trauma in Johannesburg: trauma. South Afr J Sci. 2004;42(1):7–10.

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Desai J, Lownie JF, Cleaton-Jones P. Prospective audit of mandibular fractures at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. South Afr J Surg. 2010;48(4):122–6.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Melmed E, Koonin A. Fractures of the mandible. A review of 909 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1975;56(3):323–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Rallis G, Stathopoulos P, Igoumenakis D, Krasadakis C, Mourouzis C, Mezitis M. Treating maxillofacial trauma for over half a century: how can we interpret the changing patterns in etiology and management? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015;119(6):614–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Shapiro AJ, Johnson RM, Miller SF, McCarthy MC. Facial fractures in a level I trauma center: the importance of protective devices and alcohol abuse. Injury. 2001;32:353–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Pyungtanasup K. The epidemiology of mandibular fractures treated at Chiang Mai University Hospital: a review of 198 cases. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91(6):868–74.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Kuriadom S, Dar S, Saffari F, Jaber M. Incidence of maxillofacial fractures in motor vehicle accidents treated in Dubai. Saudi Dent J. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2020.03.007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Laski R, Ziccardi V, Broder H, Janal M. Facial trauma: a recurrent disease? The potential role of disease prevention. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62(6):685–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Ferreira PC, Amarante JM, Silva PN. Retrospective study of 1251 maxillofacial fractures in children and adolescents. Plastic Reconst Surg. 2005;115(6):1500–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Andreuccetti G, Carvalho H, Cherpitel C, Ye Y. Reducing the legal blood alcohol concentration limit for driving in developing countries: a time for change? Results and implications derived from a time–series analysis (2001–10) conducted in Brazil. Addiction. 2012;106(12):2124–31.

    Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Olasoji H, Tahir A, Arotiba G. Changing picture of facial fractures in northern Nigeria. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;40(2):140–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Abiose B. Maxillofacial skeleton injuries in the western states of Nigeria. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1986;24(1):31–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Ugboko V, Odusanya S, Fagade O. Maxillofacial fractures in a semi-urban Nigerian teaching hospital: a review of 442 cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1998;27(4):286–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Hosein M, Motamedi K. An assessment of maxillofacial fractures: a 5-year study of 237 patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;61(1):61–4.

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Lindqvist C, Sorsa S, Hyrkas T, Santavitra S. Maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycle accidents. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1986;15(1):12–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Bali R, Sharma P. A comprehensive study on maxillofacial trauma conducted in Yamunanagar, India. J Inj Violence Res. 2010;5(2):108–16.

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Scherer M, Sullivan WG, Smith D Jr, Phillips L, Robson M. An analysis of 1423 facial fractures in 788 patients at an urban trauma center. J Trauma. 1989;29(3):388–90.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Van Beek G, Merkx C. Changes in the pattern of fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999;28:424–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Afzelius L, Rosen C. Facial fractures. A review of 368 cases. Int J Oral Surg. 1980;9(1):25–32.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Iida S, Matsuya T. Paediatric maxillofacial fractures: their etiological characters and fracture patterns. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg. 2000;30(4):237–41.

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Ravindran V. Metaanalysis of maxillofacial trauma in the northern districts of Kerala: one year prospective study. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2011;10(4):321–7.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

Not applicable.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MAJ: study design, prepared introduction, discussion and final review. FA: literature search, data extraction, quality assessment, prepare table and results. KB: Literature search, data extraction, quality assessment, prepare table and results. ST: Study design, prepared introduction, discussion and final review

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohamed Jaber.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

The methodology for this study was approved by the Human Research Ethics committee of the University of Ajman, UAE (Ethics approval number: D-S-R-19-11-24).

Consent to participate/Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Al-Qahtani, F., Bishawi, K., Jaber, M. et al. Maxillofacial trauma in the gulf countries: a systematic review. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-020-01417-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Maxillofacial trauma
  • Gulf Countries
  • Road traffic accidents