Advanced hemodynamic monitoring in intensive care medicine

A German web-based survey study
  • B. Saugel
  • P. C. Reese
  • J. Y. Wagner
  • M. Buerke
  • W. Huber
  • S. Kluge
  • R. Prondzinsky



Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is recommended in patients with complex circulatory shock.


To evaluate the current attitudes and beliefs among German intensivists, regarding advanced hemodynamic monitoring, the actual hemodynamic management in clinical practice, and the barriers to using it.

Materials and methods

Web-based survey among members of the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.


Of 284 respondents, 249 (87%) agreed that further hemodynamic assessment is needed to determine the type of circulatory shock if no clear clinical diagnosis can be made. In all, 281 (99%) agreed that echocardiography is helpful for this purpose (transpulmonary thermodilution: 225 [79%]; pulmonary artery catheterization: 126 [45%]). More than 70% of respondents agreed that blood flow variables (cardiac output, stroke volume) should be measured in patients with hemodynamic instability. The parameters most respondents agreed should be assessed in a patient with hemodynamic instability were mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and serum lactate. Echocardiography is available in 99% of ICUs (transpulmonary thermodilution: 91%; pulmonary artery catheter: 63%). The respondents stated that, in clinical practice, invasive arterial pressure measurements and serum lactate measurements are performed in more than 90% of patients with hemodynamic instability (cardiac output monitoring in about 50%; transpulmonary thermodilution in about 40%). The respondents did not feel strong barriers to the use of advanced hemodynamic monitoring in clinical practice.


This survey study shows that German intensivists deem advanced hemodynamic assessment necessary for the differential diagnosis of circulatory shock and to guide therapy with fluids, vasopressors, and inotropes in ICU patients.


Echocardiography Transpulmonary thermodilution Pulmonary artery catheter Fluid responsiveness Cardiovascular dynamics 

Erweitertes hämodynamisches Monitoring in der Intensivmedizin

Eine deutsche webbasierte Umfrage



Die Durchführung eines erweiterten hämodynamischen Monitorings wird bei Patienten mit komplexem Kreislaufversagen empfohlen.

Ziel der Arbeit

Evaluierung der Meinungen deutscher Intensivmediziner bezüglich eines erweiterten hämodynamischen Monitorings. Evaluierung des tatsächlich erfolgenden hämodynamischen Managements in der klinischen Praxis sowie von Hindernissen der Durchführung in der deutschen Intensivmedizin.

Material und Methoden

Webbasierte Umfragestudie unter Mitgliedern der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin.


Von 284 Teilnehmern stimmten 249 (87 %) zu, dass ein erweitertes hämodynamisches „Assessment“ nötig ist, wenn die Art des Kreislaufversagens klinisch nicht eindeutig diagnostiziert werden kann. Insgesamt 281 (99 %) stimmten zu, dass die Echokardiographie dafür hilfreich ist (transpulmonale Thermodilution: 225 [79 %]; Pulmonaliskatheter: 126 [45 %]). Mehr als 70 % der Teilnehmer stimmten zu, dass Blutflussvariablen (Herzzeitvolumen, Schlagvolumen) bei Patienten mit hämodynamischer Instabilität bestimmt werden sollten. Parameter, die von den meisten Teilnehmern als wichtig bei Patienten mit hämodynamischer Instabilität erachtet wurden, waren der mittlere arterielle Blutdruck, das Herzzeitvolumen und das Serumlaktat. Die Echokardiographie ist in 99 % der Intensivstationen verfügbar (transpulmonale Thermodilution: 91 %; Pulmonaliskatheter: 63 %). Die Teilnehmer gaben an, dass in der klinischen Praxis bei mehr als 90 % der Patienten mit hämodynamischer Instabilität eine invasive Blutdruckmessung und eine Serumlaktatbestimmung erfolgen (Herzzeitvolumen: etwa 50 %; transpulmonale Thermodilution: etwa 40 %). Die Teilnehmer gaben an, dass sie in der klinischen Praxis keine großen Hindernisse für die Durchführung eines erweiterten hämodynamischen Monitorings empfinden würden.


Diese Umfrage zeigt, dass deutsche Intensivmediziner ein erweitertes hämodynamisches Monitoring für die Differenzialdiagnostik des Kreislaufversagens und für die Steuerung der Therapie mit Flüssigkeit, Vasopressoren und Inotropika für notwendig erachten.


Echokardiographie Transpulmonale Thermodilution Pulmonaliskatheter Volumenreagibilität Kardiovaskuläre Dynamik 


Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

B. Saugel received institutional research grants, unrestricted research grants and refunds of travel expenses from Tensys Medical Inc. (San Diego, CA, USA). He received refunds of travel expenses and a fee for giving lectures from CNSystems Medizintechnik AG (Graz, Austria). He received a fee for giving lectures and personal fees as a member of the Medical Advisory Board from Pulsion Medical Systems SE (Feldkirchen, Germany) – outside the submitted work. J.Y. Wagner received institutional research grants, unrestricted research grants and received refunds of travel expenses from Tensys Medical Inc. (San Diego, CA, USA). She also received refunds of travel expenses from CNSystems Medizintechnik AG (Graz, Austria) – outside the submitted work. W. Huber received a fee for giving lectures and personal fees as a member of the Medical Advisory Board from Pulsion Medical Systems SE (Feldkirchen, Germany) outside the submitted work. P.C. Reese, M. Buerke, S. Kluge, and R. Prondzinsky declare that they have no competing interests.

The survey was approved and endorsed by the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin, DGIIN) and we performed it by means of a secure web database. As we did not collect any data of individual patients, we did not obtain approval by the ethics committee for this anonymous and nonattributable survey.

Supplementary material

63_2017_302_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (51 kb)
Table 7 Respondents’ answers to the question about barriers to the use of advanced hemodynamic monitoring.
63_2017_302_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (38 kb)
Table 8 Respondents’ answers to the question about how the DGIIN could improve knowledge on hemodynamic monitoring.


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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Saugel
    • 1
  • P. C. Reese
    • 1
  • J. Y. Wagner
    • 1
  • M. Buerke
    • 2
  • W. Huber
    • 3
  • S. Kluge
    • 4
  • R. Prondzinsky
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, Center of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Medizinische Klinik II, Kardiologie, Angiologie und Internistische IntensivmedizinSt. Marien-Krankenhaus SiegenSiegenGermany
  3. 3.II. Medizinische Klinik und PoliklinikKlinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  4. 4.Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Center of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany
  5. 5.Medizinische Klinik ICarl von Basedow Klinikum Saalekreis gGmbHMerseburgGermany

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