Gonipterus weevils have been a taxonomic challenge for many years, with implications on our understanding of invasive species, host plant relationships and natural enemies. We assessed cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) analysis as a tool for discrimination of some of the many species of Gonipterus occurring in Australia. Weevils were collected across several localities and kept under identical conditions prior to a whole-body wash for extraction of CHCs in hexane. Weevil identifications were confirmed using morphology and molecular tools. CHC extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and the relative peak areas in profiles were compared; compounds were identified according to MS fragmentation and retention indices. CHC profiles of the seven species of Gonipterus analyzed differed from each other, and from another weevil genus (Oxyops), used as an outgroup. The compounds that contributed most to species differences were alkanes, alkenes and methyl branched alkanes. Within some species, locality of collection affected CHC profiles. Our study presents CHC analysis as a promising tool for distinction of Gonipterus species.
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We thank Simon Lawson for research and travel funds through Forest and Wood Products Australia Limited (project number VNC 418-1617) (supported by Biological Control of Eucalypt Pests Alliance, Industry Plantation Management Group and University of the Sunshine Coast) towards a postgraduate research scholarship to NMS. MLS was in receipt of an Australia Awards Fellowship and funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology—Sector-Specific Innovation Fund and Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology—Tree Protection Co-Operative Programme. We also thank Jacques Schröder and Hoan Le Ngoc for their help with the collections across eastern Australia; Stephen Elms and Dianne Patzel for their help with collections in Blue Gum plantations in Victoria and South Australia; Francisco Tovar and IPMG for help with collection and access to plantations in south Western Australia, Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary for site access and Rolf Oberprieler for help with weevil taxonomy.
MLS received Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australian Government (7202). NMS received a postgraduate research scholarship from Forest and Wood Products Australia Limited (project number VNC 418–1617) (supported by Biological Control of Eucalypt Pests Alliance, Industry Plantation Management Group and University of the Sunshine Coast) and MLS received an Australia Awards Fellowship and was funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology—Sector-Specific Innovation Fund and Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology—Tree Protection Co-Operative Programme (DST-NRF Centre of Excellence In Tree Health Biotechnology).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Communicated by Günther Raspotnig.
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Souza, N.M., Schröder, M.L., Hayes, R.A. et al. Cuticular hydrocarbons of Gonipterus weevils: are there species differences?. Chemoecology (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00049-021-00337-5
- Cuticular hydrocarbon
- Cryptic species