MIMO Radar Array Configuration with Enhanced Degrees of Freedom and Increased Array Aperture

Abstract

This paper presents a new antenna array design approach for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. The geometry exhibits increased degrees of freedom (DOFs) with precise antenna locations for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of sources. The enhancement is realized by using the method of sum coarray of the difference coarray (SCDC). By effectively increasing the inter-element spacing of the transmitting array, a larger hole-free SCDC uniform linear array (ULA) is obtained. This increment provides more DOFs and extended virtual array aperture (VAA) for intended geometry. The transmitting and receiving sensor positions are based on the maximum inter-element spacing constraint (MISC) principle. The MISC composition involves three sparse ULAs with two separate antennas placed appropriately. The mathematical expressions are presented to validate the designed model. Moreover, arbitrary and optimized antenna scenarios for the transmitter and receiver are investigated in terms of DOFs and VAA. The advantages of the proposed configuration are demonstrated by conducting rigorous Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental results of DOFs, VAA, number of resolvable sources, Cram\(\acute{\hbox {e}}\)r–Rao bound performance, detection, and resolution ability reveal that the proposed sensor array design approach is suitable for MIMO radar which is also capable of estimating the DOAs of multiple sources efficiently in underdetermined scenarios.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61971221 and 61971220, in part by the Six Talent Peaks Project in Jiangsu, China, and in part by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China NP2020104

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Correspondence to Abdul Hayee Shaikh.

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Shaikh, A.H., Dang, X., Ahmed, T. et al. MIMO Radar Array Configuration with Enhanced Degrees of Freedom and Increased Array Aperture. Circuits Syst Signal Process 40, 375–400 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00034-020-01478-8

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Keywords

  • MIMO radar
  • Direction-of-arrival
  • Sensor arrays
  • Virtual array aperture
  • Degrees of freedom