Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 425–441 | Cite as

A 190 GHz VCO with Transformer-Based Push–Push Frequency Doubler in 40 nm CMOS

  • Yibo Liu
  • Luhong Mao
  • Sheng Xie
  • Baoyong Chi
Short Paper


A 190 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with transformer-based push–push frequency doubler in 40 nm CMOS is presented. The layout optimization reduces the parasitics of the transistors. To achieve high output power at a target operating frequency of 190 GHz, design considerations are discussed and a transformer-based push–push frequency doubler is introduced. The digital controlled artificial dielectric transmission line is proposed in replacement of switched-capacitor arrays whose capacitance is more susceptible to process variation. The presented circuit occupies 390 × 430 µm2 die area including the pads and consumes 57.6 mW DC power from a 0.9 V power supply. The proposed VCO achieves a measured continuous tuning range from 181.9 to 195.5 GHz. The measured output power at 195.5 GHz is − 7.26 dBm which is estimated with the typical conversion loss of harmonic mixer. The measured phase noise at 10 MHz offset is − 97.18 dBc/Hz.


Sub-millimeter wave CMOS Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) Push–push oscillator Transformer 



This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61331003 and in part by Guangxi Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation Technology and Application under Grant DH201513.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical and Information EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Institute of MicroelectronicsTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of MicroelectronicsTianjin UniversityTianjinChina

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