Advertisement

Aquatic Sciences

, Volume 79, Issue 2, pp 291–307 | Cite as

Spatial and seasonal variability of forested headwater stream temperatures in western Oregon, USA

  • J. A. Leach
  • D. H. Olson
  • P. D. Anderson
  • B. N. I. Eskelson
Research Article

Abstract

Thermal regimes of forested headwater streams control the growth and distribution of various aquatic organisms. In a western Oregon, USA, case study we examined: (1) forested headwater stream temperature variability in space and time; (2) relationships between stream temperature patterns and weather, above-stream canopy cover, and geomorphic attributes; and (3) the predictive ability of a regional stream temperature model to account for headwater stream temperature heterogeneity. Stream temperature observations were collected at 48 sites within a 128-ha managed forest in western Oregon during 2012 and 2013. Headwater stream temperatures showed the greatest spatial variability during summer (range up to 10 \(^\circ\)C) and during cold and dry winter periods (range up to 7.5 \(^\circ\)C), but showed less spatial variability during spring, fall and wet winter periods (range between 2 and 5 \(^\circ\)C). Distinct thermal regimes among sites were identified; however, geomorphic attributes typically used in regional stream temperature models were not good predictors of thermal variability at headwater scales. A regional stream temperature model captured the mode of mean August temperatures observed across the study area, but overpredicted temperatures for a quarter of the sites by up to 2.8 \(^\circ\)C. This study indicates considerable spatial thermal variability may occur at scales not resolved by regional stream temperature models. Recognizing this sub-landscape variability may be important when predicting distributions of aquatic organisms and their habitat under climate and environment change scenarios.

Keywords

Stream temperature Stream networks Headwater Pacific Northwest Aquatic habitat 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We greatly acknowledge the cooperation and financial support provided by the Pacific North West Research Station (agreement number: 14-JV-11261953-075). We thank Kelly Christiansen for preparing Fig. 1, Loretta Ellenburg and Dan Mikowski for field efforts, Dan Moore for providing feedback on an earlier draft, and two reviewers and Editor-in-Chief Stuart Findlay for comments that substantially improved the manuscript. We also acknowledge the US Bureau of Land Management for facilitation and support of the Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study for the past two decades.

Supplementary material

27_2016_497_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (218 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 (PDF 219 kb)

References

  1. Adams MJ, Frissell C (2001) Thermal habitat use and evidence of seasonal migration by Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, in Montana. Can Field Natural 115:251–256Google Scholar
  2. Anderson PD, Larson DJ, Chan SS (2007) Riparian buffer and density management influences on microclimate of young headwater forests of western Oregon. Forest Sci 53:254–269Google Scholar
  3. Arismendi I, Johnson SL, Dunham JB, Haggerty R (2013) Descriptors of natural thermal regimes in streams and their responsiveness to change in the Pacific Northwest of North America. Freshw Biol 58(5):880–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arismendi I, Johnson SL, Dunham JB, Haggerty R, Hockman-Wert D (2012) The paradox of cooling streams in a warming world: Regional climate trends do not parallel variable local trends in stream temperature in the Pacific continental United States. Geophys Res Lett 39(10):L10401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arscott D, Tockner K, Ward J (2001) Thermal heterogeneity along a braided floodplain river (Tagliamento River, Northeastern Italy). Can J Fisher Aquat Sci 58(12):2359–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behnke RJ (2002) Trout and salmon of North America. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Benyahya L, Caissie D, El-Jabi N, Satish MG (2010) Comparison of microclimate vs. remote meteorological data and results applied to a water temperature model (Miramichi River, Canada). J Hydrol 380(3):247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beschta RL, Bilby RE, Brown G, Holtby LB, Hofstra TD (1987) Stream temperature and aquatic habitat: fisheries and forestry interactions. In: Salo EO, Cundy TW (eds) Streamside management: forestry and fishery interactions, number 57. University of Washington, Institute of Forest Resources, Seattle, pp 191–232Google Scholar
  9. Bormans M, Webster IT (1998) Dynamics of temperature stratification in lowland rivers. J Hydraul Eng 124:1059–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown GW (1969) Predicting temperatures of small streams. Water Resour Res 5(1):68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown HA (1975) Temperature and development of the tailed frog, Ascaphus truei. Compar Biochem Physiol Part A 50:397–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown LE, Hannah DM (2008) Spatial heterogeneity of water temperature across an alpine river basin. Hydrol Process 22(7):954–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown RS, Hubert WA, Daly SF (2011) A primer on winter, ice, and fish: what fisheries biologists should know about winter ice processes and stream-dwelling fish. Fisheries 36(1):8–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bury RB (1968) The distribution of Ascaphus truei in California. Herpetologica 24:39–46Google Scholar
  15. Cadbury SL, Hannah DM, Milner AM, Pearson CP, Brown LE (2008) Stream temperature dynamics within a New Zealand glacierized river basin. River Res Appl 24(1):68–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang H, Psaris M (2013) Local landscape predictors of maximum stream temperature and thermal sensitivity in the Columbia River Basin, USA. Sci Total Environ 461462:587–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cissel JH, Anderson PD, Berryman S, Chan SS, Olson DH, Puettmann KJ, Thompson C (2006) BLM density management and riparian buffer study: establishment report and study plan. Scientific investigations report 2006–5087. US Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, RestonGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark P, Alley R, Pollard D (1999) Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet influences on global climate change. Science 286(5442):1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daigle A, St-Hilaire A, Peters D, Baird D (2010) Multivariate modelling of water temperature in the Okanagan watershed. Can Water Resour J 35(3):237–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Danehy RJ, Colson CG, Parrett KB, Duke SD (2005) Patterns and sources of thermal heterogeneity in small mountain streams within a forested setting. Forest Ecol Manag 208:287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Development Core Team R (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  22. Dick J, Tetzlaff D, Soulsby C (2015) Landscape influence on small-scale water temperature variations in a moorland catchment. In: Hydrological processesGoogle Scholar
  23. Durance I, Ormerod SJ (2007) Climate change effects on upland stream macroinvertebrates over a 25-year period. Global Change Biol 13(5):942–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ebersole JL, Liss WJ, Frissell CA (2003) Thermal heterogeneity, stream channel morphology, and salmonid abundance in northeastern Oregon streams. Can J Fisher Aquat Sci 60(10):1266–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Franklin JF, Dyrness CT (1973) Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Technical report, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, US Department of Agriculture, Portland, Oregon, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNWGoogle Scholar
  26. Frazer GW, Canham CD, Lertzman, KP (1999) Gap Light analyser (GLA), version 2.0: imaging software to extract canopy structure and light transmission indices from true-colour fisheye photographs. User’s manual and program documentation. Simon Fraser University, BurnadyGoogle Scholar
  27. Friberg N, Bergfur JJR, Sandin L (2013) Changing Northern catchments: is altered hydrology, temperature or both going to shape future stream communities and ecosystem processes? Hydrolog Process 27:734–740Google Scholar
  28. Gardner B, Sullivan PJ, Lembo AJ Jr (2003) Predicting stream temperatures: geostatistical model comparison using alternative distance metrics. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60(3):344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garner G, Malcolm IA, Sadler JP, Millar CP, Hannah DH (2014) Inter-annual variability in the effects of riparian woodland on micro-climate, energy exchanges and water temperature of an upland Scottish stream. Hydrolog Process. doi: 10.1002/hyp.10223
  30. Gomi T, Moore RD, Dhakal AS (2006) Headwater stream temperature response to clear-cut harvesting with different riparian treatments, coastal British Columbia, Canada. Water Resour Res 42(8):W08437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gomi T, Sidle RC, Richardson JS (2002) Understanding processes and downstream linkages of headwater systems. BioScience 52(10):905–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gravelle JA, Link TE (2007) Influence of timber harvesting on water temperatures in a northern Idaho watershed. Forest Sci 53:189–205Google Scholar
  33. Groom JD, Dent L, Madsen LJ (2011) Stream temperature change detection for state and private forests in the Oregon Coast Range. Water Resour Res 47(1):W01501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hannah DM, Malcolm IA, Soulsby C, Youngson AF (2008) A comparison of forest and moorland stream microclimate, heat exchanges and thermal dynamics. Hydrol Process 22(7):919–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hester E, Doyle M, Poole G (2009) The influence of in-stream structures on summer water temperatures via induced hyporheic exchange. Limnol Oceanogr 54(1):355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Holsinger L, Keane RE, Isaak DJ, Eby L, Young MK (2014) Relative effects of climate change and wildfires on stream temperatures: a simulation modeling approach in a Rocky Mountain watershed. Clim Change 124(1–2):191–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holtby LB (1988) Effects of logging on stream temperatures in Carnation Creek British Columbia, and associated impacts on the coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch). Can J Fisher Aquat Sci 45(3):502–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hossack BR, Lowe WH, Webb MAH, Talbott MJ, Kappenman KM, Corn PS (2013) Population-level thermal performance of a cold-water ectotherm is linked to ontogeny and local environmental heterogeneity. Freshw Biol 58:2215–2225Google Scholar
  39. Hrachowitz M, Soulsby C, Imholt C, Malcolm IA, Tetzlaff D (2010) Thermal regimes in a large upland salmon river: a simple model to identify the influence of landscape controls and climate change on maximum temperatures. Hydrol Process 24:3374–3391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Imholt C, Soulsby C, Malcolm IA, Hrachowitz M, Gibbins CN, Langan S, Tetzlaff D (2013) Influence of scale on thermal characteristics in a large montane river basin. River Res Appl 29:403–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Isaak DJ, Luce CH, Rieman BE, Nagel DE, Peterson EE, Horan DL, Parkes S, Chandler GL (2010) Effects of climate change and wildfire on stream temperatures and salmonid thermal habitat in a mountain river network. Ecol Appl 20:1350–1371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Isaak DJ, Wenger SJ, Peterson EE, Ver Hoer JM, Hostetler S, Luce CH, Dunham JB, Kershner J, Roper BB, Nagel D, Horan D, Chandler G, Parkes S, Wollrab S (2011) NorWeST: an interagency stream temperature database and model for the Northwest United States. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative Grant. Project website: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/projects/NorWeST.html
  43. Isaak DJ, Young MK, Nagel DE, Horan DL, Groce MC (2015) The cold-water climate shield: delineating refugia for preserving salmonid fishes through the 21st century. Glob Change Biol 21:2540–2553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johnson RA, Wichern DW (2002) Applied multivariate statistical analysis, 5th edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson SL (2004) Factors influencing stream temperatures in small streams: substrate effects and a shading experiment. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61(6):913–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jones LLC, Leonard WP, Olson DH (eds) (2005) Amphibians of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle Audubon Society, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  47. Langridge RW (1987) Soil survey of Linn County Area. Oregon, technical report, United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation ServiceGoogle Scholar
  48. Leach JA, Moore RD (2010) Above-stream microclimate and stream surface energy exchanges in a wildfire-disturbed riparian zone. Hydrol Process 24(17):2369–2381Google Scholar
  49. Leach JA, Moore RD (2011) Stream temperature dynamics in two hydrogeomorphically distinct reaches. Hydrol Process 25(5):679–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leach JA, Moore RD (2014) Winter stream temperature in the rain-on-snow zone of the Pacific northwest: influences of hillslope runoff and transient snow cover. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 18:819–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leach JA, Moore RD (2015) Observations and modeling of hillslope throughflow temperatures in a coastal forested catchment. Water Resour Res 51(5):3770–3795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. MacDonald RJ, Boon S, Byrne JM (2014) A process-based stream temperature modelling approach for mountain regions. J Hydrol 511:920–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Marquardt T, Temesgen H, Anderson PD, Eskelson B (2012) Evaluation of sampling methods to quantify abundance of hardwoods and snags within conifer-dominated riparian zones. Ann Forest Sci 69(7):821–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mayer TD (2012) Controls of summer stream temperature in the Pacific Northwest. J Hydrol 475:323–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Meeuwig MH, Dunham JB, Hayes JP, Vinyard GL (2004) Effects of constant and cyclical thermal regimes on growth and feeding of juvenile cutthroat trout of variable sizes. Ecol Freshw Fish 13:208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Meisner JD, Rosenfeld JS, Regier HA (1988) The role of groundwater in the impact of climate warming on stream salmonines. Fisheries 13(3):2–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moore RD (2006) Stream temperature patterns in British Columbia, Canada, based on routine spot measurements. Can Water Resour J 31(1):41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moore RD, Nelitz M, Parkinson E (2013) Empirical modelling of maximum weekly average stream temperature in British Columbia, Canada, to support assessment of fish habitat suitability. Can Water Resour J 38(2):135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moore RD, Spittlehouse DL, Story A (2005a) Riparian microclimate and stream temperature response to forest harvesting: a review. J Am Water Resour Assoc 41(4):813–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moore RD, Sutherland P, Gomi T, Dhakal A (2005b) Thermal regime of a headwater stream within a clear-cut, coastal British Columbia, Canada. Hydrol Process 19(13):2591–2608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Callaghan JF, Mark DM (1984) The extraction of drainage networks from digital elevation data. Comput Vis Graph Image Process 28:323–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Oke T (1987) Boundary layer climates, 2nd edn. Halsted Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. Olson DH, Anderson PD, Frissell CA, Welsh HH Jr, Bradford DF (2007) Biodiversity management approaches for stream riparian areas: perspectives for Pacific Northwest headwater forests, microclimate and amphibians. Forest Ecol Manag 246(1):81–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Olson DH, Burton JI (2014) Near-term effects of rerepeat thinning with riparian buffers on headwater stream vertebrates and habitats in Oregon, USA. Forests 5:2703–2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Olson DH, Leirness JB, Cunningham PG, Steel EA (2014) Riparian buffers and forest thinning: effects on headwater vertebrates 10 years after thinning. Forest Ecol Manag 321:81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olson DH, Rugger C (2007) Preliminary study of the effects of headwater riparian reserves with upslope thinning on stream habitats and amphibians in western Oregon. Forest Sci 53(2):331–342Google Scholar
  67. Olson DH, Weaver G (2007) Vertebrate assemblages associated with headwater hydrology in western Oregon managed forests. Forest Sci 53(2):343–355Google Scholar
  68. Parkinson EA, Lea EV, Nelitz MA, Knudson JM, Moore RD (2015) Identifying temperature thresholds associated with fish community changes in British Columbia, Canada, to support identification of temperature sensitive streams. River research and applicationsGoogle Scholar
  69. Perkins RM, Jones JA (2008) Climate variability, snow, and physiographic controls on storm hydrographs in small forested basins, western cascades, Oregon. Hydrol Process 22(25):4949–4964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pluhowski EJ (1970) Urbanization and its effect on the temperature of the streams on Long Island, New York. Technical report, Geological survey professional paper, 627-DGoogle Scholar
  71. Rieman BE, Isaak D, Adams S, Horan D, Nagel D, Luce C (2007) Anticipated climate warming effects on bull trout habitats and populations across the interior Columbia River basin. Trans Am Fish Soc 136:1552–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rutherford JC, Macaskill JB, Williams BL (1993) Natural water temperature variations in the lower Waikato River, New Zealand. N Z J Marine Freshw Res 27:71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rykken JJ, Moldenke AR, Olson DH (2007) Headwater riparian forest-floor invertebrate communities associated with alternative forest management practices. Ecol Appl 17(4):1168–1183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sagar J, Olson DH, Schmitz R (2006) Survival and growth of larval coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) in stream in the Oregon Coast Range. Copeia 2007:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Scott MC, Helfman GS, McTammany ME, Benfield EF, Bolstad PV (2002) Multiscale influence on physical and chemical stream conditions across Blue Ridge landscapes. J Am Water Resour Assoc 38:1379–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Snyder CD, Hitt NP, Young JA (2015) Accounting for groundwater in stream fish thermal habitat responses to climate change. Ecol Appl 25(5):1397–1419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Story A, Moore RD, Macdonald JS (2003) Stream temperatures in two shaded reaches below cutblocks and logging roads: downstream cooling linked to subsurface hydrology. Can J Forest Res 33(8):1383–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. System for automated geoscientific analyses geographic information system 2013. SAGA GIS, version 2.1.1. http://www.saga-gis.org
  79. Thornton PE, Thornton MM, Mayer BW, Wilhelmi N, Wei Y, Devarakonda R, Cook RB (2014) Daymet: daily surface weather data on a 1-km grid for North America, version 2. Data set. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Data acaccess: 2015/01/23. Temporal range: 1980/01/01-2013/12/31. Spatial range: Lat: 44.56 Long: -122.56. http://daac.ornl.gov
  80. Trotter P (2008) Cutthroat native trout of the West, 2nd edn. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  81. Webb BW, Hannah DM, Moore RD, Brown LE, Nobilis F (2008) Recent advances in stream and river temperature research. Hydrol Process 22(7):902–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Webb BW, Zhang Y (1999) Water temperatures and heat budgets in Dorset chalk water courses. Hydrol Process 13(3):309–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wehrly KE, Brenden TO, Wang L (2009) A comparison of statistical approaches for predicting stream temperatures across heterogeneous landscapes. J Am Water Resour Assoc 45(4):986–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wehrly KE, Wiley MJ, Seelbach PW (2003) Classifying regional variation in thermal regime based on stream fish community patterns. Trans Am Fish Soc 132(1):18–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Welsh HH Jr, Lind AJ (1996) Habitat correlates of the southern torrent salamander, Rhyacotriton variegatus (Caudata: Rhyacotritonidae), in northwestern California. J Herpetol 30:385–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zevenbergen LW, Thorne CR (1987) Quantitative analysis of land surface topography. Earth Surf Process Landf 12:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Resources ManagementThe University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of Forest Ecology and ManagementSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUmeåSweden
  3. 3.USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research StationForestry Sciences LaboratoryORUSA

Personalised recommendations