Marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has proved to be a powerful tool and found its increasing applications for offshore resource exploration and tectonic studies. However, bathymetric variations and anisotropic structures encountered in practical measurements have posed challenges for reliable interpretation of marine CSEM data collected in increasingly complex geologic settings. In this study, we present a Finite element (FE) based forward algorithm for simulating 3-D marine CSEM responses in geologic settings characterized with rough bathymetry and electrical anisotropy. Unstructured tetrahedral meshes are employed to permit precise descriptions of arbitrary seafloor topography. After validating the accuracy of the algorithm, we investigate the effects of bathymetric variations and complicated electric anisotropy separately and jointly on marine CSEM responses. Numerical results have demonstrated that both the bathymetry and electrical anisotropy can cause significant distortions on marine CSEM responses, but to different extent. The effects of full electrical anisotropy and bathymetry have to be taken into consideration for reliable interpretations of marine CSEM data in practice.
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41704133, 41630317), and Hubei subsurface multi-scale imaging key laboratory (No. SMIL-2018-03). Ronghua Peng would like to express his gratitude to Dr. Piyoosh Jaysaval for providing the reference data of the 1-D shallow-water TTI model used in Fig. 4. We wish to express our gratitude to the editor, Raúl Periáñez, and three anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions that helped clarify and improve the manuscript.
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Peng, R., Hu, X., Li, J. et al. Finite Element Simulation of 3-D Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic Fields in Anisotropic Media with Unstructured Tetrahedral Grids. Pure Appl. Geophys. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-020-02514-z
- Controlled source electromagnetics
- electrical anisotropy
- bathymetric effect
- finite element method
- unstructured tetrahedral grids