On 22 December 2018, volcanic activity of Anak Krakatau, Indonesia, triggered a tsunami that caused more than 437 casualties on surrounding coastlines. Soon after the event, before the physical evidence of the tsunami disappeared, a postevent field survey was carried out. Measurements of tsunami inundation and impact are important to better model and understand the tsunami triggering processes to support future tsunami mitigation efforts. The impacted area on the western coast of Banten, Java Island, was surveyed to acquire tsunami inundation and run-up height data, together with field characteristics of the tsunami deposits. Data were acquired at 36 locations along three transects of tsunami deposits. From these, the maximum tsunami run-up height (up to 13 m) in the surveyed locations was identified on the southern part of the Banten Coast in the Tanjung Lesung area, an area located to the south of Anak Krakatau Volcano. The tsunami deposits were relatively thin along the transect, including a fining upward sequence without any clear evidence of fresh volcanic material, in disagreement with other reported volcano-induced tsunami deposits. Characteristics of the 2018 Anak Krakatau tsunami deposits are more similar to earthquake-induced tsunami deposits, hence complicating the paleotsunami reconstruction in Sunda Strait, where tsunami mechanisms are from both volcano and earthquakes along the Sunda subduction zone.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Arikawa, T., Muhari, A., Okumura, Y., Dohi, Y., Afriyanto, B., Sujatmiko, K. A., et al. (2018). Coastal subsidence induced several tsunamis during the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake. Journal of Disaster Research,13, 1–3.
BNPB (National Disaster Management Agency). (2019). Tsunami Sunda Strait. https://bnpb.go.id/tsunami-selat-sunda. Accessed 14 Jan 2019.
Choi, B. H., Pelinovsky, E., Kim, K. O., & Lee, J. S. (2003). Simulation of the trans-oceanic tsunami propagation due to the 1883 Krakatu volcanic eruption. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science,3(5), 321–332.
Fine, I., Rabinovich, A.B., Thomson, R.E., Kulikov, E.A. (2003). Numerical modeling of tsunami generated by submarine and subaerial landlsides. In Yalciner, A.C., Pelinovsky, A., Okal, E., Synolakis, C.E. (Eds.), Submarine Landside and Tsunamis. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher.
Grilli, S., Tappin, D.R., Carey, S., Watt, S.F.L., Ward, S.N., Grilli, A.R., Engwell, S.L., Zhang, C., Kirby, J., Schambach, L., Muin, M. (2019). Modeling of the tsunami from the December 22, 2018 lateral collapse of Anak Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Scientific Reports. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48327-6.
Heinrich, P., Gulbourg, S., Mangency, A., & Roche, R. (1999). Numerical modeling of a landslide-generated tsunami following a potential explosion of the Montserrat Volcano. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth,24(2), 163–168.
Jagodziński, R., Sternal, B., Szczuciński, W., Chagué-Goff, C., & Sugawara, D. (2012). Heavy minerals in the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits—Insights into sediment sources and hydrodynamics. Sedimentary Geology,282, 57–64.
Kulikov, E. A., Rabinovich, A., Thomson, R. E., & Bornhold, B. D. (1996). The landslide tsunami of November 3, 1994, Skagway Harbor, Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research,101(C3), 6609–6615.
Maeno, F., & Imamura, F. (2011). Tsunami generation by a rapid entrance of pyroclastic flow into the sea during the 1883 Krakatau eruption, Indonesia. Journal of Geophysical Research. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008253.
Matsumoto, D., Sawai, Y., Tanigawa, K., Fujiwara, O., Namegaya, Y., Shishikura, M., Kagohara, K., Kimura, H. (2016). Tsunami deposit associated with the 2011 Tohoku‐oki tsunami in the Hasunuma site of the Kujukuri coastal plain, Japan. Island Arc, 25(5), 369–385
Muhari, A., Heidarzadeh, M., Susmoro, H., Nugroho, H.D., Kriswati, E., Wijanarto, A.B., Imamura, F., Arikawa, T. (2019). The December 2018 Anak Krakatau Volcano tsunami as inferred from post-tsunami field surveys and spectral analysis. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 176, 5219–5233
Nakamura, Y., Nishimura, Y., & Putra, P. S. (2012). Local variation of inundation, sedimentary characteristics, and mineral assemblages of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami on the Misawa coast, Aomori, Japan. Sedimentary Geology,282, 216–227.
Newhall, C.G., Decker, R.W., Sudradjat, A., Tilling, R.I. Peteson, D.W. (1983). A comparison of eruption and magma reservoirs of Krakatau, Mount St. Helens, and Galunggung. In Symposium on 100th Year Development of Krakatau and its Surrounding, Jakarta 23–27 August, 1983.
Nishimura, Y. (2008). Volcanism-induced tsunami and tsunamiites. In T. Shiki, Y. Tsuji, T. Yamazaki, & K. Minoura (Eds.), Tsunamiites—Features and Implications (pp. 163–181). New York: Elsevier.
Nomanbhoy, N., & Satake, K. (1995). Generation mechanism of tsunamis from the 1883 Krakatau Eruption. Geophysical Research Letters,22(4), 509–512.
Omira, R., Dogan, G. G., Hidayat, R., Husrin, S., Prasetya, G., Annunziato, A., et al. (2019). The September 28th, 2018, tsunami in Palu-Sulawesi, Indonesia: A post-event survey. Pure and Applied Geophysics,176(4), 1379–1395.
Pelinovsky, E., Choi, B.H., Stromkov, A., Didenkulova, I., Kim, H.-S. (2005). Analysis of tide-gauge records of the 1883 Krakatau tsunami. In Satake, K. (Ed.), Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research (vol. 23). Dordrecht: Springer.
Pelinovsky, E., Zahibo, N., Dunkley, P., Edmonds, M., Herd, R., Talipova, T., Kozelkov, A., Nikolkina, I. (2004). Tsunami generated by the volcano eruption on July 12–13, 2003 at Montserrat Lesser Antilles. Science of Tsunami Hazards, 22(1), 44–57
Putra, P. S. (2018). Tsunami sediments and their grain size characteristics. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science,118, 012035.
Putra, P. S., Aswan, A., Maryunani, K. A., Yulianto, E., & Kongko, W. (2019). Field survey of the 2018 Sulawesi tsunami deposits. Pure and Applied Geophysics,176(6), 2203–2213.
Satake, K., Nishimura, Y., Putra, P.S., Gusman, A.R., Sunendar, H., Fujii, Y., Tanioka, Y., Lateif, H., Yulianto, E. (2013). Tsunami source of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia earthquake inferred from tsunami field survey and waveform modeling. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 170, 1567–1582
Simkin, T., & Fiske, R. S. (1983). Krakatau 1883: A classic geophysical event. EOS,64(34), 513–514.
Sugawara, D., Minoura, K., & Imamura, F. (2008). Tsunamis and tsunami sedimentology. In T. Shiki, Y. Tsuji, T. Yamazaki, & K. Minoura (Eds.), Tsunamiites—Features and Implications (pp. 163–181). New York: Elsevier.
Takabatake, T., Shibayama, T., Esteban, M., Achiari, H., Nurisman, N., Gelfi, M., Tarigan, T.A., Kencana, E.R., Fauzi, M.A.R., Panalaran, S., Harnantyari, A.S., Kyaw, T.O. (2019). Field survey and evacuation behaviour during the 2018 Sunda Strait tsunami. Coastal Enginering Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/21664250.2019.1647963
TDMRC (Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Centre, Syiah Kuala University). (2019). The latest update from post Sunda Strait tsunami survey. https://tdmrc.unsyiah.ac.id/the-latest-update-from-post-sunda-strait-tsunami-survey/. Accessed 21 Jan 2019
Watts, P. (2000). Tsunami features of solid block underwater landslides. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering,126(3), 144–152.
Williams, R., Rowley, P., & Garthwaite, C. (2019). Reconstructing the Anak Krakatau flank collapse that caused the December 2018 Indonesian tsunami. Geology. https://doi.org/10.1130/G46517.1.
Yokoyama, I. (1987). A scenario of the 1883 Krakatau tsunami. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 34(1–2), 123–132.
The fieldwork was funded by the Research Center for Geotechnology. We would like to thank Prof. Alexander Rabinovich (Editor-in-Chief of this journal) and anonymous reviewers for their comments that significantly improved our manuscript. Prof. David Tappin of British Geological Survey and Jonathan Griffin of Geoscience Australia are thanked for improving the English of this paper.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Putra, P.S., Aswan, A., Maryunani, K.A. et al. Post-Event Field Survey of the 22 December 2018 Anak Krakatau Tsunami. Pure Appl. Geophys. 177, 2477–2492 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-020-02446-8
- 2018 Anak Krakatau tsunami
- postevent field survey
- tsunami deposit
- volcanogenic tsunami
- tsunami run-up
- flow depth