Sea surface salinity presents one of the most important chemical elements in the water. Climatic variables, included in new view of salinity distribution at a global scale, were used in this research. For the purpose of this research newly updated climate parameters for the period until 2100 were used along with (CMIP5) climatological model. The new distribution of surface salinity may show water desalination and energy potential. This map can be useful in the determination of new littoral areas or for fishermen’s routes. These data are presented in geo-tiff raster extension with the resolution of 0.1. This map could be updated with climatological parameters with obtained medium climate change effects. Some places in the world sea have low, some have high salinity. Salinity increases in accordance with the increase of precipitation and decreases with the decrease of it. The paper presents following maps; salinity world map when there is no climate change; the moderate one, if the temperature increases for 2.0 °C until 2100, and high if the increase of temperature was between 2.0 °C and 5.0 °C. The three scenarios were taken to show updated maps of world salinity in comparison with climate change effects.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
- Oryza sativa L:
Relative sea level
Geostationary Earth Orbit Tagged Image File Format
Representative Concentration Pathway
Specific climatological model
Geographical Information Systems
Quantum Geographic Information System
System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses
Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis
World Meteorological Organization
- Aster DEM:
Aster Digital Elevation Model
- Landsat 7:
The seventh satellite of the Landsat program
- Sentinel ESA:
United Space in Europe
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis
Abrams, M. (2000). The Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER): data products for the high spatial resolution imager on NASA’s Terra platform. International Journal of Remote Sensing,21, 847–859. https://doi.org/10.1080/014311600210326.
Akinbinu, V. (2015). Delineation of saline water intrusion to safe-guide inland groundwater resources. Ocean and Coastal Management,116, 162–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.07.005.
Angus, S. (2014). The implications of climate change for coastal habitats in the Uists, Outer Hebrides. Ocean and Coastal Management,94, 38–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.02.012.
Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raichich, F., & Russo, A. (1997). The Adriatic sea general circulation. Part I: air–sea interactions and water mass structure. Journal of Physical Oceanography,27, 1492–1514.
Brasseur, P., Beckers, J. M., Brankart, J. M., & Schoenauen, R. (1996). Seasonal temperature and salinity fields in the Mediterranean sea: climatological analyses of a historical data set. Deep Sea Research Part I,42(2), 159–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(96)00012-X.
Broecker, W. S. (1989). The salinity contrast between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans during glacial time. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology,4(2), 207–212. https://doi.org/10.1029/PA004i002p00207.
Casal, G., & Lavender, S. (2017). Spatio-temporal variability of sea surface temperature in Irish waters (1982–2015) using AVHRR sensor. Journal of Sea Research,129, 89–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2017.07.006.
Cech, I., & Montera, J. (2000). Spatial variations in total aluminum concentrations in drinking water supplies studied by geographic information system (GIS) methods. Water Research,34(10), 2703–2712. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00026-9.
Chinen, K., Sim-Lin Lau, S., Nonezyan, M., Elizabeth McElroy, E., Wolfe, B., Suffet, I. H., et al. (2016). Predicting runoff induced mass loads in urban watersheds: linking land use and pyrethroid contamination. Water Research,120, 607–618. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.06.040.
Curry, R., Dickson, B., & Yashayaev, A. (2003). A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature,426, 826–829. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02206.
Davis, R. A. (1987). Sea-level fluctuation and coastal evolution. The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists,41, 167–178.
Duplessy, J. C., Labeyrie, L., Arnold, M., Paterne, M. J., Duprat, J., & Van Weering, T. C. (1992). Changes in surface salinity of the North Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation. Nature,358, 485–488. https://doi.org/10.1038/358485a0.
Dwumfour-Asare, B., Nyarko, B. W., Awuah, E., Essandoh, H. K., Gyan, A. B., & Ofori-Addo, H. (2018). Indigenous plants for informal greywater treatment and reuse by some households in Ghana. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination,8(4), 553–565. https://doi.org/10.2166/wrd.2018.061.
Flowers, T. J., & Yeo, A. R. (1995). Breeding for salinity resistance in crop plants: where next? Australian Journal of Plant Physiology,22(6), 875–884.
Gad, S., & Kusku, T. (2006). Lithological mapping in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, the Barramiya area, using Landsat thematic mapper (TM). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 44(2), 196–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.10.014.
Haque, S. A. (2006). Salinity problems and crop production in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Botany,38(5), 1359–1365.
Huffman, G. J., Adler, R. F., Bolvin, D. T., & Nelkin, E. J. (2010). The TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA). In M. Gebremichael & F. Hossain (Eds.), Satellite rainfall applications for surface hydrology. Dordrecht: Springer.
Jankowski, P., Andrienko, N., & Andrienko, G. (2001). Map-centred exploratory approach to multiple criteria spatial decision making. International Journal Geographical Information Science,15(2), 101–127. https://doi.org/10.1080/13658810010005525.
Jun, C., Ban, Y., & Li, S. (2014). China: Open access to Earth land-cover map. Nature, 514, 30–31.
Kantamaneni, K., Gallagher, A., & Du, X. (2019). Assessing and mapping regional coastal vulnerability for port environments and coastal cities. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 23, 59–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-018-0636-7.
Khanom, T. (2016). Effect of salinity on food security in the context of interior coast of Bangladesh. Ocean and Coastal Management,130, 205–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.06.013.
Kim, D., Amy, L. G., & Karanfil, T. (2015). Disinfection by-product formation during seawater desalination: a review. Water Research,81, 343–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.05.040.
Krijgsman, W., Hilgen, F. J., Raffi, I., Sierro, F. J., & Wilson, D. S. (1999). Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature,4, 652–655. https://doi.org/10.1038/2323110.1038/23231.
Levitus, S. (1989). Interpentadal variability of temperature and salinity at intermediate depths of the north Atlantic Ocean, 1970–1974 versus 1955–1959. JGR Oceans,94(C5), 6091–6131. https://doi.org/10.1029/JC094iC05p06091.
Loitzenbauer, E., & André Bulhões Mende, C. (2012). Salinity dynamics as a tool for water resources management in coastal zones: an application in the Tramandaí River basin, southern Brazil. Ocean and Coastal Management,55, 52–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.10.011.
Milliman, J. D., & Haq, B. U. (Eds.) (1996). Sea-level rise and coastal subsidence. Causes, consequences, and strategies. Coastal systems and continental margins (Vol. 2). Dordrecht: Springer.
New, M., Hulme, M., & Jones, P. (2000). Representing twentieth-century space–time climate variability. Part II: Development of 1901–96 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. Journal of Climate,13(13), 2217–2238.
Onderka, M., & Pekárová, P. (2008). Retrieval of suspended particulate matter concentrations in the Danube River from Landsat ETM data. Science of the Total Environment,397(1–3), 238–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.044.
Pawlowicz, R. (2012). The electrical conductivity of seawater at high temperatures and salinities. Desalination,300, 32–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2012.06.001.
Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., & McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köoppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Science,11(1633–1644), 2007. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
Rahman, M. H., Lund, T., & Bryceson, I. (2011). Salinity impacts on agro-biodiversity in three coastal, rural villages of Bangladesh. Ocean and Coastal Management,54(6), 455–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.03.003.
Rao, P., Morrow, W. R., III, Aghajanzadeh, A., Sheaffer, P., Dolinger, C., Brueske, S., et al. (2018). Energy considerations associated with increased adoption of seawater desalination in the United States. Desalination,445, 213–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2018.08.014.
Rhoades, J. D., & Loveday, J. (1990). Salinity in irrigated agriculture. Agronomy,2, 1089–1142.
Robson, C. F., Davidson, N. C., Barne, J. H., & Doody, J. P. (1996). Coastal directories and beyond: providing multidisciplinary coastal zone resource information for resource management. Journal of Coastal Conservation,2(1), 179–182. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02743052.
Saha, A., & Khan, A. S. (2000). Use long-term meteorological data for estimation of irrigation requirement of wheat (Triticum aestivum) at different risk level. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,70, 177–180.
Steers, J. A. (1994). Coastal preservation and planning. The Geographical Journal,104(1–2), 7–18. https://doi.org/10.2307/1790025.
Subrahmanyam, B., Murty, V.S.N., Sharp, R.J., James J.O.B (2005). Pure and applied geophysics, 162(8–9), 1643–1672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-005-2687-6.
Tauhid-Ur-Rahman, M., Rasheduzzaman, M., Habib, M. A., Ahmed, A., Tareq, S. M., & Muniruzzaman, S. M. (2017). Assessment of fresh water security in coastal Bangladesh: an insight from salinity, community perception and adaptation. Ocean and Coastal Management,137, 66–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.12.005.
Timpano, A. J., Zipper, C. E., Soucek, J., & Schoenholtz, D. J. (2011). Seasonal pattern of anthropogenic salinization in temperate forested headwater streams. Water Research,133, 8–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.01.012.
Titus, J. G. (1990). Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and land use. Land Use Policy,7(2), 138–153.
Valjarević, A., Djekić, T., Stevanović, V., Ivanović, R., & Jandziković, B. (2018a). GIS numerical and remote sensing analyses of forest changes in the Toplica region for the period of 1953–2013. Applied Geography,92, 131–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.01.016.
Valjarević, A., Srećković-Batoćanin, D., Valjarević, D., & Matović, V. A. (2018b). GIS-based method for analysis of a better utilization of thermal-mineral springs in the municipality of Kursumlija (Serbia). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,92, 948–957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.05.005.
Van Aken, H. M. (2008). Variability of the salinity in the western Wadden Sea on tidal to centennial time scales. Journal of Sea Research,59(3), 121–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2007.11.001.
Vilibić, I., Šepić, J., Pasarić, M., & Orlić, M. (2017). The Adriatic sea: A long-standing laboratory for sea level studies. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 174(10), 3765–3811. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1625-8.
Ward, F. D. (2007). Modelling the potential geographic distribution of invasive ant species in New Zealand. Biological Invasions,9, 723–735. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-006-9072-y.
Warren, R. S., & Niering, W. A. (1993). Vegetation change on a northeast tidal marsh: interaction of sea-level rise and marsh accretion. Ecology,74(1), 96–103. https://doi.org/10.2307/1939504.
Yoshi, T., Imamura, M., Matsuyama, M., Koshimura, S., Matsuoka, M., Mas, E., et al. (2013). Salinity in soils and tsunami deposits in areas affected by the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunamis. Pure and Applied Geophysics,170(6–8), 1047–1066. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0530-4.
Zabel, F., Putz Enlechner, B., & Mauser, W. (2014). Global agricultural land resources—a high resolution suitability evaluation and its perspectives until 2100 under climate change conditions. PLoS One,9, e114980. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114980.
Zhu, Q. P., Shi, X. M., Zhan, H. L., & Jiang, H. (2012). Seawater utilization in China: Current situation, issue and development strategy. China Water Resources, 21, 30–33.
The present work was supported by The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, under the Project 174024.
Conflict of interest
This manuscript has not been previously published and is not under consideration in the same or substantially similar form in any other peer-reviewed media. No conflict of interest, financial or other, exists.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Valjarević, A., Filipović, D., Milanović, M. et al. New Updated World Maps of Sea-Surface Salinity. Pure Appl. Geophys. 177, 2977–2992 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-019-02404-z
- updated maps
- climate change
- world sea