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Background Stress State Before the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Dynamics of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt

  • Kaiying Wang
  • Yu. L. Rebetsky
  • Xiangdong Feng
  • Shengli Ma
Article

Abstract

A stress reconstruction was performed based on focal mechanisms around the Longmen Shan region prior to the 2008 Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake using a newly developed algorithm (known as MCA). The method determines the stress tensor, including principal axes orientations, and quantitative stress values, such as the effective confining pressure and maximum shear stress. The results of the MCA application using data recorded by the regional network from 1989 to April 2008 show the background stress state around the Longmen Shan belt before the Wenchuan earthquake. The characteristics of the stress orientation reveal that the Longmen Shan region is primarily under the eastward extrusion of the eastern Tibetan plateau. Non-uniform quantitative stress distributions show low stress levels in the upper crust of the middle Longmen Shan segment, which is consistent with the observed high-angle reverse faulting associated with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. In contrast, other study areas, such as the Bayankela block and the NW strip extending to the Sichuan basin, show high stress intensity. This feature coincides with heterogeneity in the wave speed image of the upper crust in this region, which shows high S-wave speed in the high stress areas and comparatively low S-wave speed in low stress areas. Deformation features across the Longmen Shan belt with the slow rates of convergence determined by GPS and the distribution of surface deformation rates also are in keeping with our stress results. We propose a dynamic model in which sloping uplift under the Longmen Shan, which partly counteracts the pushing force from the eastern plateau, causes the low-quantitative stresses in the upper crust beneath the Longmen Shan. The decreasing gravitational potential energy beneath the Longmen Shan leads to earthquake thrust faulting and plays an important role in the geodynamics of the area that results from ductile thickening of the deep crust behind the Sichuan basin, creating a narrow, steep margin.

Keywords

Wenchuan earthquake deformation features MCA quantitative stress background stress state low stress level sloping uplift 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 41572181) and the Basic Research Funds from the Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration (Grant no. IGCEA1605).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of GeologyChina Earthquake AdministrationBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Physics of the EarthRussian Academy of SciencesMoskvaRussia
  3. 3.Earthquake Administration of Hebei ProvinceShijiazhuangChina

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