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Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 174, Issue 7, pp 2457–2473 | Cite as

Tsunami runup and tide-gauge observations from the 14 November 2016 M7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, New Zealand

  • William PowerEmail author
  • Kate Clark
  • Darren N. King
  • Jose Borrero
  • Jamie Howarth
  • Emily M. Lane
  • Derek Goring
  • James Goff
  • Catherine Chagué-Goff
  • James Williams
  • Catherine Reid
  • Colin Whittaker
  • Christof Mueller
  • Shaun Williams
  • Matthew W. Hughes
  • Jo Hoyle
  • Jochen Bind
  • Delia Strong
  • Nicola Litchfield
  • Adrian Benson
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. NZ-2017

Abstract

The 2016 M w 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes in New Zealand’s historical record, and it generated the most significant local source tsunami to affect New Zealand since 1947. There are many unusual features of this earthquake from a tsunami perspective: the epicentre was well inland of the coast, multiple faults were involved in the rupture, and the greatest tsunami damage to residential property was far from the source. In this paper, we summarise the tectonic setting and the historical and geological evidence for past tsunamis on this coast, then present tsunami tide gauge and runup field observations of the tsunami that followed the Kaikōura earthquake. For the size of the tsunami, as inferred from the measured heights, the impact of this event was relatively modest, and we discuss the reasons for this which include: the state of the tide at the time of the earthquake, the degree of co-seismic uplift, and the nature of the coastal environment in the tsunami source region.

Keywords

Tsunami earthquake natural hazards New Zealand Kaikoura earthquake 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Power
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kate Clark
    • 1
  • Darren N. King
    • 2
  • Jose Borrero
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jamie Howarth
    • 1
  • Emily M. Lane
    • 5
  • Derek Goring
    • 6
  • James Goff
    • 7
  • Catherine Chagué-Goff
    • 7
  • James Williams
    • 8
  • Catherine Reid
    • 8
  • Colin Whittaker
    • 9
  • Christof Mueller
    • 1
  • Shaun Williams
    • 5
  • Matthew W. Hughes
    • 10
  • Jo Hoyle
    • 5
  • Jochen Bind
    • 5
  • Delia Strong
    • 1
  • Nicola Litchfield
    • 1
  • Adrian Benson
    • 11
  1. 1.GNS ScienceLower HuttNew Zealand
  2. 2.National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA)AucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.eCoast Marine Consulting and ResearchWaikatoNew Zealand
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA)ChristchurchNew Zealand
  6. 6.Mulgor Consulting LimitedChristchurchNew Zealand
  7. 7.PANGEA Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental SciencesUNSW AustraliaSydneyAustralia
  8. 8.Department of Geological Sciences, College of ScienceUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand
  9. 9.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  10. 10.Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand
  11. 11.Victoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand

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