Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 74, Issue 15, pp 2761–2771 | Cite as

The acidic microenvironment as a possible niche of dormant tumor cells

  • Silvia Peppicelli
  • Elena Andreucci
  • Jessica Ruzzolini
  • Anna Laurenzana
  • Francesca Margheri
  • Gabriella Fibbi
  • Mario Del Rosso
  • Francesca Bianchini
  • Lido Calorini
Review

Abstract

Although surgical excision, chemo-, and radio-therapy are clearly advanced, tumors may relapse due to cells of the so-called “minimal residual disease”. Indeed, small clusters of tumor cells persist in host tissues after treatment of the primary tumor elaborating strategies to survive and escape from immunological attacks before their relapse: this variable period of remission is known as “cancer dormancy”. Therefore, it is crucial to understand and consider the major concepts addressing dormancy, to identify new targets and disclose potential clinical strategies. Here, we have particularly focused the relationships between tumor microenvironment and cancer dormancy, looking at a re-appreciated aspect of this compartment that is the low extracellular pH. Accumulating evidences indicate that acidity of tumor microenvironment is associated with a poor prognosis of tumor-bearing patients, stimulates a chemo- and radio-therapy resistant phenotype, and suppresses the tumoricidal activity of cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells, and all these aspects are useful for dormancy. Therefore, this review discusses the possibility that acidity of tumor microenvironment may provide a new, not previously suggested, adequate milieu for “dormancy” of tumor cells.

Keywords

Acidosis Tumor microenvironment Dormancy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by grants from Istituto Toscano Tumori, Ente Cassa di Risparmio di Firenze.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia Peppicelli
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elena Andreucci
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jessica Ruzzolini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anna Laurenzana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francesca Margheri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gabriella Fibbi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mario Del Rosso
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francesca Bianchini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lido Calorini
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche “Mario Serio”Università di FirenzeFirenzeItaly
  2. 2.Istituto Toscano TumoriFirenzeItaly

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