Fig. 1 | Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Fig. 1

From: Bafilomycin A1 activates respiration of neuronal cells via uncoupling associated with flickering depolarization of mitochondria

Fig. 1

The effect of Baf on the respiration of dPC12 cells is attributed to mitochondrial uncoupling. a As a result of sustained activation of respiration by Baf (0.25 μM), cellular O2 levels steadily decrease for 60–80 min and then remain elevated for hours. b Dose-dependent decrease in cellular O2 measured 45 min after Baf application reveals that the respiratory response reaches a maximum at 0.5–0.8 μM Baf. c Cell deoxygenation induced by Baf increases when glucose in the medium is replaced with galactose. In contrast, 0.25 μM CMA has no effect. d Complete dissipation of the acidic compartments after 30 min treatment with 0.25 μM Baf is confirmed by LysoTracker Red staining. e The intensity of the ΔΨm-sensitive probe TMRM decreases by 30–50% when the cells are incubated with 0.25 μM Baf for 30 min. f In the cells treated with Baf or CMA for 4 h under starving conditions the level of LC3 II degradation decreases due to inhibition of autophagy. DMSO was used as a negative control. In d and e representative live cell confocal images are shown. Bar 20 μm; asterisks significant differences

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