Individual variation in pheromone emission and termination patterns in female Anomala cuprea
Individual variations in pheromone emission patterns were examined in a scarab beetle, Anomala cuprea Hope (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), by headspace collection of airborne volatiles from individual females. The amount of pheromone obtained varied among virgin females, and about 16% of these females (“silent” females) did not emit detectable amount of pheromone throughout the experimental period. There was no clear temporal pattern of peak pheromone emission for 19 days after the onset. More than half of the laboratory mated females completely stopped releasing pheromone after the first mating, while the rest of them continued releasing pheromone, frequently followed by additional mating.
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