Opportunities for immune modulation in the spondyloarthropathies with special reference to gut inflammation
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The spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are a related group of disorders, characterized primarily by spondylitis, pauci-articular arthritis and enthesitis. The presence of subclinical gut inflammation in patients with SpA ranges from 25 to 75%, depending upon the type of SpA. Several data suggest that the association between gut inflammation and synovitis reflects an etiopathogenetic relationship, and that strategies which interfere with the gut inflammation may also modulate the synovitis. Here we review some standard as well as experimental drugs used in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and discuss what is known about their effect on SpA-related locomotor manifestations. For the more experimental drugs, such as cytokines, anti-cytokines and anti-adhesion compounds, clinical trials in patients with SpA are still very scarce.
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