A comparison of the inhibitory effects of budesonide, beclomethasone dipropionate, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone and tixocortol pivalate on cytokine release from leukocytes recovered from human bronchoalveolar lavage
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Objective: The potency of budesonide, beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), dexamethasone, hydrocortisone and tixocortol pivalate as inhibitors of interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) release from human bronchoalveolar lavage cells in vitro were compared.¶Methods: BAL leukocytes were obtained from patients undergoing bronchoscopy for diagnostic purposes. BAL leukocytes were activated with PHA (10 μg/ml) and PMA (10 ng/ml) and cultured for 48 h in the presence or absence of glucocorticoids. Culture supernatants were assayed for cytokines by ELISA.¶Results: Budesonide (10-9 to 10-7 M) and BDP (10-8 to 10-6 M) were the most potent glucocorticoids tested. Dexamethasone (10-7 to 10-5 M) was less potent, and the maximum inhibitory effect of dexamethasone was less than that produced by than budesonide or BDP. Tixocortol pivalate (10-6 to 3 × 10-5 M) caused a concentration-related inhibition of IL-5 release but only the highest concentration tested inhibited the release of IFNγ. Hydrocortisone (10-4 M) inhibited IL-5 and IFNγ release.¶Conclusion: We conclude that, unlike the other glucocorticoids tested, tixocortol pivalate appeared to be a selective inhibitor of IL-5 release. Possible mechanisms for this selectivity are discussed.
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