Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by NS-398 in endotoxin shock rats in vivo
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Objective and Design: The role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was examined using a rat endotoxin shock model and the potency and selectivity of NS-398, a COX-2 selective inhibitor in vitro, for COX-2 activity was examined in vivo.¶Material: Male Wistar rats (weighing 140–180 g) were used.¶Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered to rats (LPS-treated rats) and expression of COX-1 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA in the aorta and peripheral blood leukocytes was examined by RT-PCR. COX activity was assessed by measuring the plasma 6-keto prostaglandin (PG) F1 α, PGE2 and thromboxane (TX) B2 30 s after administration of arachidonic acid (AA, 3 mg/kg, i.v.). NS-398 (0.3–100 mg/kg, p.o.) or indomethacin (0.3–3 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before the AA injection.¶Results: COX-2 mRNA was detectable in the aorta and peripheral blood leukocytes at least from 3 to 9 h after the LPS injection but not in non-LPS-treated rats. Plasma 6-keto PGF1 α, PGE2 and TXB2 levels after AA injection into LPS-treated rats were significantly enhanced compared to findings in non-LPS-treated rats. NS-398 showed significant inhibition of the increase in PGs in LPS-treated rats, the ED50 values being 0.35 mg/kg for 6-keto PGF1 α, 1.5 mg/kg for PGE2 and < 0.3 mg/kg for TXB2. NS-398 even at 100 mg/kg did not significantly suppress the increased PGs levels in non-LPS-treated rats. In contrast, indomethacin significantly inhibited plasma PGs levels after AA injection into LPS-treated rats and non-LPS-treated rats. The ED50 values in LPS-treated rats, determined by 6-keto PGF1 α, PGE2 and TXB2 production, were 1.0, 1.3 and 2.3 mg/kg and those in non-LPS-treated rats were 0.42, 0.24 and 0.93 mg/kg, respectively.¶Conclusions: In a rat endotoxin shock model, expression of COX-2 plays a role in an increase in COX activity. NS-398 showed preferential inhibitory effects on COX-2 activity in vivo. This approach is useful to directly analyze the inhibitory activity of NSAIDs for COX-1 and COX-2 in vivo.
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