Anti-arthritic activity of the Indian leafy vegetable Cardiospermum halicacabum in Wistar rats and UPLC–QTOF–MS/MS identification of the putative active phenolic components
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The present work was carried out to investigate the free radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extract of C. halicacabum leaves (EECH), to study its antioxidant properties and anti-rheumatic effects in Wistar rats with CFA-induced arthritis, and to profile the phenolic components thereof by LC–MS/MS.
The free radical scavenging activities of the extract was evaluated by NO and superoxide anion scavenging assays. Arthritis was induced to the albino Wistar rats by CFA. Fifteen days after CFA induction, arthritic rats received EECH orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg daily for 20 days. Diclofenac sodium was used as reference standard. EECH is subjected to LC–MS/MS analysis for the identification of phenolic compounds.
The IC50 value of the EECH to scavenge the NO and superoxide radicals are 83 and 60 μg/ml respectively. Ultrasonography and histology images of hind limb in EECH treated groups confirmed the complete cartilage regeneration. The LC/MS/MS analysis indicated the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide and chrysoeriol.
These findings lend pharmacological support to the reported folkloric use of C. halicacabum in the treatment and management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions.
KeywordsCardiospermum halicacabum LC–MS/MS Complete Freund’s adjuvant Anti-arthritis
Complete Freund’s adjuvant
White blood cells
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Red blood cells
We thank University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India for the financial support. The mass spectrometry work was supported by Waters Corporation, Bangalore, India. We also thank Dr. J. Senthilkumar, Veterinary Surgeon and Dr. R. Banumathi for providing the Ultrasonography facility and interpretation of the same and histological results.
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