Neuropeptides stimulate production of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in human dental pulp cells
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Objective:Orthodontic tooth movement causes inflammatory reactions in the periodontal membrane and dental pulp. It has been reported that substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), both sensory neuropeptides, are manifested in the dental pulp of rats during experimental tooth movement, suggesting that they might be involved in the dental pulp inflammation during orthodontic tooth movement. However, the relationships between neuropeptides and pro-inflammatory cytokines have not been fully elucidated.
Materials and methods:Human dental pulp (HDP) fibroblasts were prepared from 6 healthy young volunteers (3 males, 3 females; 15–25 years old) during the course of orthodontic treatment. HDP cells were incubated for 24 h in fresh medium containing 2% FCS in the presence of various concentrations of CGRP (10–12 to 10–4 M) and SP (10–12 to 10–4 M), and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α present in the media were determined using commercially available high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.
Results:We examined the effects of stimulation by these neuropeptides on the production of inflammatory cytokines in HDP fibroblasts, and found that the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. However, the neuropeptides did not act synergistically to increase cytokine secretion in HDP cells or significantly modify LPS-induced cytokine production by HDP cells.
Conclusions:Our results suggest that human pulp fibroblasts may be involved in the progress of inflammation in pulp tissue during orthodontic tooth movement, as they produced large amounts of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α following stimulation with neuropeptides.
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