Aequationes mathematicae

, Volume 92, Issue 3, pp 415–423 | Cite as

Groups with a ternary equivalence relation

  • Helmut Karzel
  • Sayed-Ghahreman Taherian


We consider in a group \((G,\cdot )\) the ternary relation
$$\begin{aligned} \kappa := \{(\alpha , \beta , \gamma ) \in G^3 \ | \ \alpha \cdot \beta ^{-1} \cdot \gamma = \gamma \cdot \beta ^{-1} \cdot \alpha \} \end{aligned}$$
and show that \(\kappa \) is a ternary equivalence relation if and only if the set \( \mathfrak Z \) of centralizers of the group G forms a fibration of G (cf. Theorems 2, 3). Therefore G can be provided with an incidence structure
$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak G:= \{\gamma \cdot Z \ | \ \gamma \in G , Z \in \mathfrak Z(G) \}. \end{aligned}$$
We study the automorphism group of \((G,\kappa )\), i.e. all permutations \(\varphi \) of the set G such that \( (\alpha , \beta , \gamma ) \in \kappa \) implies \((\varphi (\alpha ),\varphi (\beta ),\varphi (\gamma ))\in \kappa \). We show \(\mathrm{Aut}(G,\kappa )=\mathrm{Aut}(G,\mathfrak G)\), \(\mathrm{Aut} (G,\cdot ) \subseteq \mathrm{Aut}(G,\kappa )\) and if \( \varphi \in \mathrm{Aut}(G,\kappa )\) with \(\varphi (1)=1\) and \(\varphi (\xi ^{-1})= (\varphi (\xi ))^{-1}\) for all \(\xi \in G\) then \(\varphi \) is an automorphism of \((G,\cdot )\). This allows us to prove a representation theorem of \(\mathrm{Aut}(G,\kappa )\) (cf. Theorem 6) and that for \(\alpha \in G \) the maps
$$\begin{aligned} \tilde{\alpha }\ : \ G \rightarrow G;~ \xi \mapsto \alpha \cdot \xi ^{-1} \cdot \alpha \end{aligned}$$
of the corresponding reflection structure \((G, \widetilde{G})\) (with \( \tilde{G} := \{\tilde{\gamma }\ | \ \gamma \in G \}\)) are point reflections. If \((G ,\cdot )\) is uniquely 2-divisible and if for \(\alpha \in G\), \(\alpha ^{1\over 2}\) denotes the unique solution of \(\xi ^2=\alpha \) then with \(\alpha \odot \beta := \alpha ^{1\over 2} \cdot \beta \cdot \alpha ^{1\over 2}\), the pair \((G,\odot )\) is a K-loop (cf. Theorem 5).


Group with collinearity Ternary equivalence relation Kinematic fibration 

Mathematics Subject Classification

Primary 51M10 Secondary 51G05 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zentrum MathematikTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Mathematical SciencesIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

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