Aequationes mathematicae

, Volume 79, Issue 1–2, pp 111–156 | Cite as

The formal translation equation for iteration groups of type II



We investigate the translation equation
$$F(s+t, x) = F(s, F(t, x)),\quad \quad s,t\in{\mathbb{C}},\qquad\qquad\qquad\qquad({\rm T})$$
in \({\mathbb{C}\left[\kern-0.15em\left[{x}\right]\kern-0.15em\right]}\), the ring of formal power series over \({\mathbb{C}}\). Here we restrict ourselves to iteration groups of type II, i.e. to solutions of (T) of the form \({F(s, x) \equiv x + c_k(s)x^k {\rm mod} x^{k + 1}}\), where k ≥ 2 and c k ≠ 0 is necessarily an additive function. It is easy to prove that the coefficient functions c n (s) of
$$F(s, x) = x + \sum_{n \ge q k}c_n(s)x^n$$
are polynomials in c k (s). It is possible to replace this additive function c k by an indeterminate. In this way we obtain a formal version of the translation equation in the ring \({(\mathbb{C}[y])\left[\kern-0.15em\left[{x}\right]\kern-0.15em\right]}\). We solve this equation in a completely algebraic way, by deriving formal differential equations or an Aczél–Jabotinsky type equation. This way it is possible to get the structure of the coefficients in great detail which are now polynomials. We prove the universal character (depending on certain parameters, the coefficients of the infinitesimal generator H of an iteration group of type II) of these polynomials. Rewriting the solutions G(y, x) of the formal translation equation in the form \({\sum_{n\geq 0}\phi_n(x)y^n}\) as elements of \({(\mathbb{C}\left[\kern-0.15em\left[{x}\right]\kern-0.15em\right])\left[\kern-0.15em\left[{y}\right]\kern-0.15em\right]}\), we obtain explicit formulas for \({\phi_n}\) in terms of the derivatives H (j)(x) of the generator \({H}\) and also a representation of \({G(y, x)}\) as a Lie–Gröbner series. Eventually, we deduce the canonical form (with respect to conjugation) of the infinitesimal generator \({H}\) as x k + hx 2k-1 and find expansions of the solutions \({G(y, x) = \sum_{r\geq 0} G_r(y, x)h^r}\) of the above mentioned differential equations in powers of the parameter h.

Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)

Primary 39B12 39B50 Secondary 13F25 


Translation equation formal functional equations Aczél–Jabotinsky type equations iteration groups of type II ring of formal power series over \({\mathbb{C}}\) 


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© Birkhäuser / Springer Basel AG 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für MathematikKarl-Franzens-Universität GrazGrazAustria

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