Adverse Effects Associated with Clinical Applications of CAR Engineered T Cells
Cancer has been ranked as the second leading cause of death in the United States. To reduce cancer mortality, immunotherapy is gaining momentum among other therapeutic modalities, due to its impressive results in clinical trials. The genetically engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are emerging as a new approach in cancer immunotherapy, with the most successful outcomes in the refractory/relapse hematologic malignancies. However, the widespread clinical applications are limited by adverse effects some of which are life-threatening. Strategies to reduce the chance of side effects as well as close monitoring, rapid diagnosis and proper treatment of side effects are necessary to take the most advantages of this valuable therapy. Here we review the reported toxicities associated with CAR engineered T cells, the strategies to ameliorate the toxicity, and further techniques and designs leading to a safer CAR T-cell therapy.
KeywordsEngineered T cells Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) Immunotherapy Adverse effects
This work was supported by Funds from Kids Walk for Kids with Cancer NYC, Katie Find a Cure Foundation, the Robert Steel Foundation, and NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant P30 CA008748.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.