Nexus Network Journal

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 387–422 | Cite as

The Housing of the World: The Significance of Cosmographic Concepts for Habitation



A specific mode of human existence shows up in modelling the structures and processes of the world onto the living space, consisting of certain landscapes, locations, and habitations. Concepts of housing the world are implemented in the lodgings, cultic buildings, settlements, territories, and the artificial shaping of the landscape. These structures offered humans a ‘domestic’ sphere within a realm of wild nature, ensuring stability, centricity, meaning, security, familiarities, knowledge of controlling, social and power classifications. Cosmovisions of early cultures and indigenous people often address the idea of the housing as the world in miniature. Structures worked as a lively microcosm figuring the macrocosm and allowing interacting with the world by using a symbolic and ritual approach. The study points out basic principles and categories. It queries whether elements of archaic cosmovisions related architecture, ecosystems, and the mindset have survived until today and if so, why.


Housing cosmography cosmovision power place fireplace hearth membrane partitioning light access circumambulation living entity transfiguration sacred landscape asterisms symbolism 


  1. Ackerman Phyllis: The Symbolic Sources of Some Architectural Elements. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 12(4), 3–7 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akkach, Samer. 2005. Cosmology and Architecture in Premodern Islam. An Architectural Reading of Mystical Ideas. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  3. Applegate Richard B.: The Black, the Red, and the White: Duality and Unity in the Luiseño Cosmos. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 1(1), 71–88 (1979)Google Scholar
  4. Ashmore Wendy.: Site-Planning Principles and Concepts of Directionality among the Ancient Maya. Latin American Antiquity 2(3), 199–226 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aveni, Anthony. 2008. The House, the family, and the sky. Pp. 111-128 in: Foundations of New World Cultural Astronomy: A Reader With Commentary, Anthony Aveni, ed. Colorado: University of Colorado Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bachtin, Michail M. 2008. Chronotopos. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  7. Banning E.B.: Housing Neolithic Farmers. Near Eastern Archaeology 66(1/2), 4–21 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnatt, John. 1998. Monuments in the Landscape: Thoughts from the Peak. Pp. 92-105 in Prehistoric Ritual and Religion, A. Gibson and D. Simpson, eds. Stroud: Sutton.Google Scholar
  9. Barnatt, John and Mark Edmonds. 2002. Places Apart? Caves and Monuments in Neolithic and Earlier Bronze Age Britain. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 12, 1: 113-129.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, Roger. 2010. The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire. Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Beilke-voigt, Ines. 2007. Das Opfer im archäologischen Befund. Studien zu den sog. Bauopfern, kultischen Niederlegungen und Bestattungen in ur- und frühgeschichtlichen Siedlungen Norddeutschlands und Dänemarks. Berliner Archäologische Forschungen, vol. 4. Rahden/Westfalen.Google Scholar
  12. Belmonte, Juan Antonio and Mauro Peppino Zedda. 2005. Light and Shadows on the Pyramids. Pp. 188-196 in: Lights and Shadows in Cultural Astronomy, M. P. Zedda and J. A. Belmonte, eds. Isili: Associazione Archeofila Sara.Google Scholar
  13. Belmonte, Juan A. and Mosalam Shaltout. 2005. On the orientation of ancient Egyptian temples: (1) upper Egypt and lower Nubia. Journal of the History of Astronomy 36: 173-192.Google Scholar
  14. Bénisti, Mireille. 1960. II. Étude sur le stūpa dans l’Inde ancienne. Bulletin de l’Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient 50, 1: 37-116.Google Scholar
  15. Blanchard, Katie. 2010. Maya in the Mountains: Ecology and Cosmology in the Rocks and Caves of Highland Guatemala. 2010. Carleton College, Sociology and Anthropology in Guatemala and Chiapas, Field Research Paper Archives. Accessed 04/08/2013.Google Scholar
  16. Boivin, Nicole. 2004. Landscape and Cosmology in the South Indian Neolithic: New Perspectives on the Deccan Ashmounds. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 14, 2: 235-257.Google Scholar
  17. Bollnow, Otto Friedrich. 2011. Human Space. London: Hyphen Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1970. The Berber house or the world reversed. Social Science Information 9, 2: 151-170.Google Scholar
  19. Bradley, Richard. 2002. The Past in prehistoric societies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, Linda A. 2004. Dangerous Places and Wild Spaces: Creating Meaning with Materials and Space at Contemporary Maya Shrines on El Duende Mountain. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 11, 1: 31-58.Google Scholar
  21. Carrasco, David. 1981. City as Symbol in Aztec Thought: The Clues from the Codex Mendoza. History of Religions 20, 3: 199-223.Google Scholar
  22. Casajus, M. Dominique. 1981. La tente et le campement chez les Touareg Kel Ferwan. Revue de l’Occident musulman et de la Méditerranée 32: 53-70.Google Scholar
  23. Casey, Edward S. 1998. The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Chevalier, Jean and Allain GHEERBRANT. 1996. Dictionary of Symbols. London.Google Scholar
  25. Clottes, Jean. 2003. Return to Chauvet Cave: Excavating the Birthplace of Art: The First Full Report. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  26. Coomaraswamy, Rama P. 1977. The Door in the Sky. Coomaraswamy on Myth and Meaning. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Comaroff, Jean. 1985. Body of Power, Spirit of Resistance: The Culture and History of a South African People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Crandall, David P. 1996. Female over Male or Left over Right: Solving a Classificatory Puzzle among the Ovahimba. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 66, 3: 327-348.Google Scholar
  29. Dinzelbacher, Peter. 2000. Handbuch der Religionsgeschichte im deutschsprachigen Raum II. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.Google Scholar
  30. Domenig, Gaudenz. 2008. Timber orientation in the traditional architecture of Indonesia. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 164, 4: 450-474Google Scholar
  31. Donley, Linda W. 1987. Life in the Swahili Town House Reveals the Symbolic Meaning of Spaces and Artefact Assemblages. The African Archaeological Review 5: 181-192.Google Scholar
  32. Duin, Renzo S. 2002/2003. Wayana architectuur in zuidoost-Suriname: bouwen naar de oorsprongsmythe. SOJAbundel 2002/2003: 41-51.Google Scholar
  33. Egenter, Nold. 1980. Bauform als Zeichen und Symbol. Nichtdomestikales Bauen im japanischen Volkskult. Zürich.Google Scholar
  34. Egenter, Nold. 1989. The Master of the Wilderness, the bear, lives in the upper part of our home. House and World-view of the Ainu. Zürich.Google Scholar
  35. Egenter, Nold. 2001. The Deep Structure of Architecture and Human Evolution. Pp. 43-81 in Architectural Anthropology, Mari-Jose Merlinck, ed. Westport (CT) and London: Bergin & Garvey.Google Scholar
  36. Ehrich, Paula. 1945. Die vorgeschichtlichen Totenhäuser und der Hausgedanke im Bestattungsbrauch. Doctoral thesis, University of Hamburg.Google Scholar
  37. Eisler, Rudolf. 1910. Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt. Religionswissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zur Urgeschichte des antiken Weltbildes. 2 vols. Munich: C. H. Beck.Google Scholar
  38. Esteban, César und J. Emili Aura Tortosa. 2001. The winter sun in a Palaeolithic cave: La Cova del Parpall=. Pp. 8-14 in: Astronomy, Cosmology and Landscape, C. Ruggles, F. Prendergast and T. Ray, eds. Bognor: Ocarina Books.Google Scholar
  39. Feeley-harnik, Gillian. 1980. The Sakalava House (Madagascar). Anthropos 75, 3/4: 559-585.Google Scholar
  40. Fox, James J. 2006. Inside Austronesian Houses. Perspectives on domestic designs for living. Canberra: ANUE Press / The Australian National University.Google Scholar
  41. Frank, Rozlyn M. 2001. Hunting the European sky-bears: the Candlemas Bear Day and World Renewal Ceremonies. Pp. 133-157 in: Astronomy, Cosmology, and Landscape, C. Ruggles, F. Prendergast and T. Ray, eds. Bognor Regis: Ocarina Books.Google Scholar
  42. Freidel, David, Linda SCHELE, and JOY Parker. 1993. Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years on the Shaman’s Path. New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
  43. García-goyco, Osvaldo. 2007. The Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2 and the Cosmic Tree in Mesoamerica, the Caribbean, and the Amazon-Orinoco Basin. Pp. 357-387 in: Cave, City, and Eagle’s Nest. An Interpretive Journey through the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2, D. Carrasco and S. Sessions, eds. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  44. Geertz, Armin W. 1984. A Reed Pierced the Sky: Hopi Indian Cosmography on Third Mesa, Arizona. Numen 31, 2: 216-241.Google Scholar
  45. Goodison, Lucy. 2004. From tholos tomb to Throne Room: some considerations of dawn light and directionality in Minoan buildings. British School at Athens Studies 12: 339-350.Google Scholar
  46. Griaule, Marcel. 1966. Dieu d’Eau. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  47. Griffin-pierce, Trudy. 1992. Earth is My Mother, Sky is My father. Space, Time and Astronomy in Navajo Sandpainting. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  48. Gulløv, Hans Christian and Martin Appelt 2001. Social bonding and shamanism among Late Dorset groups in High Arctic Greenland. Pp. 146-162 in: The Archaeology of Shamanism, N. Price, ed. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Heilbron, John L. 2003. Astronomie et églises. Paris: Belin.Google Scholar
  50. Heimpel, Wolfgang. 1986. The Sun at Night and the Doors of Heaven in Babylonian Texts. Journal of Cuneiform Studies 38, 2: 127-151.Google Scholar
  51. Helms, Mary W. 2002. Sacred Landscape and the Early Medieval European Cloister. Unity, Paradise, and the Cosmic Mountain Reviewed work(s). Anthropos 97, 2: 435-453.Google Scholar
  52. Henderson, Hope and Nicholas OSTLER. 2005. Muisca settlement organization and chiefly authority at Suta, Valle de Leyva, Colombia: A critical appraisal of native concepts of house for studies of complex societies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 24: 148-178.Google Scholar
  53. Hentze, Carl. 1961. Das Haus als Weltort der Seele. Stuttgart: Klett.Google Scholar
  54. Hinz, H. 1976. Bauopfer. Pp. 111-112 in: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde Bd. 2 Berlin.Google Scholar
  55. Hodder, Ian. 2006. The Leopard’s Tale. Revealing the Mysteries of Çatalhöyük. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  56. Hori, Ichiro. 1966. Mountains and Their Importance for the Idea of the Other World in Japanese Folk Religion. History of Religions 6, 1: 1-23.Google Scholar
  57. Houston, Stephen D. 1966. Symbolic Sweatbaths of the Maya: Architectural Meaning in the Cross Group at Palenque, Mexico. Latin American Antiquity 7, 2: 132-151.Google Scholar
  58. Hugh-jones, Christine. 1979. From the Milk River. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Hugh-jones, Stephen. 1993. Clear Descent or Ambiguous Houses? A Re-Examination of Tukanoan Social Organisation. L’Homme 33, 126-128: 95-120.Google Scholar
  60. Hultkranz, Åke. 1987. Diversity in Cosmology: The Case of the Wind River Shoshoni. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies VII: 285-290.Google Scholar
  61. Huxley, Margaret. 2000. The Gates and Guardians in Sennacherib’s Addition to the Temple of Assur. Iraq 62: 109-137.Google Scholar
  62. Irwin, John C. 1982. The Sacred Anthill and the Cult of the Primordial Mound. History of Religions 21. 4: 339-360Google Scholar
  63. Ivanov, Vjaeslav Vsevolodovi: Gerade und Ungerade: Die Asymmetrie des Gehirns und der Zeichensysteme. Stuttgart: Hirzel S. Verlag, 1983.Google Scholar
  64. Iwaniszewski, Stanislaw. 1996. Archaeoastronomical investigations at Biskupin, Poland (Early Bronze Age enclosure and Early Iron Age settlement)–first results. Pp. 85-92 in: Archaeoastronomical Traditions in Past Cultures, V. Koleva and D. Kolev, eds. Bognor Regis: Ocarina Books.Google Scholar
  65. Jacobi, Adolf. 1928. Der Baum mit den Wurzeln nach oben und den Zweigen nach unten. Zeitschrift für Missionskunde und Religionswissenschaft 43: 78-85.Google Scholar
  66. Jencks, Charles. 1995. The Architecture of the Jumping Universe: A Polemic: How Complexity Science Is Changing Architecture and Culture. Wiley-Academy.Google Scholar
  67. Kalland, Arne. 1996. Geomancy and Town Planning in a Japanese Community. Ethnology 35, 1: 17-32.Google Scholar
  68. Kaspin, Deborah. 1996. A Chewa Cosmology of the Body. American Ethnologist 23. 3: 561-578.Google Scholar
  69. Kaufmann, Eva-Maria. 2006. Jakobs Traum und der Aufstieg des Menschen zu Gott. Das Thema der Himmelsleiter in der bildenden Kunst des Mittelalters. Tübingen, Berlin: Wasmuth.Google Scholar
  70. Kay, Marvin and George SABO III. 2006. Mortuary Ritual and Winter Solstice Imagery of the Harlan-Style Charnel House. Southeastern Archaeology 25, 1: 29-47.Google Scholar
  71. King, Victor T. 1985. Symbols of Social Differentiation in Borneo. Newsletter Museum Ethnographers Group 18: 8-20.Google Scholar
  72. Krupp, Edwin C. 1983. Echoes of Ancient Skies. The astronomy of lost civilizations. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Krupp, Edwin C. 1997. Skywatchers, Shamans and Kings. Astronomy and the Archaeology of Power. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  74. Kus, Susan and Victor Raharijaona. 2000. House to Palace, Village to State: Scaling up Architecture and Ideology. American Anthropologist, New Series 1, 102: 98-113.Google Scholar
  75. Lamp, Frederick. 1985. Cosmos, Cosmetics, and the Spirit of Bondo. African Arts 18, 3: 28-43, 98-99.Google Scholar
  76. Lawrence, Denise L. and Setha M. LOW. 1990. The Built Environment and Spatial Form. Annual Review of Anthropology 19: 453-505.Google Scholar
  77. Lehner, Erich. 1998. Wege der architektonischen Evolution. Viennna: Phoibos-Verlag.Google Scholar
  78. Lehner, Erich. 2006. Ideen und Konzepte der Architektur in aßereuropäischen Kulturen. Vienna and Graz: Neuer Wissenschaftlicher Verlag.Google Scholar
  79. Lethaby, W.R. 1892. Architecture, Mysticism and Myth. London: Percival & Co.Google Scholar
  80. Levenson, Jon D. 1984. The Temple and the World. The Journal of Religion 64, 3: 275-298.Google Scholar
  81. Lewis-williams, James David. 2002. The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  82. Lewis-williams, James David and David PEARCE. 2005. Inside the Neolithic Mind. Consciousness, Cosmos and the Realm of the Gods. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  83. Lewis, R. Barry and Charles STOUT. 1998. Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces. Searching for an Architectural Grammar. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  84. Mabbett, I. W. 1983. The Symbolism of Mount Meru. History of Religions 23, 1: 64-83.Google Scholar
  85. Malecka, Anna. 1999. Solar Symbolism of the Mughal Thrones. A Preliminary Note. Arts asiatiques 54: 24-32Google Scholar
  86. Mannika, Eleanor. 1996. Angkor Wat: Time, Space, and Kingship. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  87. Masaharu, Takasaki. 1998. An Architecture of Cosmology. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  88. Mckhann, Charles F. 1992. Fleshing out the Bones: The Cosmic and Social Dimensions of Space in Naxi Architecture. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  89. Meister, Michael W. 2000. Mountains and Cities in Cambodia: Temple Architecture and Divine Vision. International Journal of Hindu Studies 4, 3: 261-268.Google Scholar
  90. Merrifield, Ralph. 1987. The archaeology of ritual and magic. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
  91. Metevelis, Peter. 2000. The Lapidary Sky over Japan. Asian Folklore Studies 59: 79-88.Google Scholar
  92. Meyer, Jeffrey F. 1978. "Feng-Shui" the Chinese City. History of Religions 18, 2: 138-155.Google Scholar
  93. Mguni, Siyakha. 2006. Iconography of Termites’ Nests and Termites: Symbolic Nuances of Formlings in Southern African San Rock Art. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 16, 1: 53-71.Google Scholar
  94. Miller, Jay. 1979. A Strucon Model of Delaware Culture and the Positioning of Mediators. American Ethnologist 6, 4: 791-802.Google Scholar
  95. Mozuna, Monta. 1978. Theory of Cosmic Architecture. Pp. 80-85 in: A new wave of Japanese architecture. Institute for Architecture & Urban Studies, catalogue 10. New York: IAUS.Google Scholar
  96. Müller, Klaus E. 1987. Das Magische Universum der Identität. Elementarformen soziologischen Verhaltens, ein ethnologischer Grundriss. Frankfurt a. Main/New York: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  97. Müller, Werner. 1956. Die Religionen der Waldlandindianer Nordamerikas. Berlin: Reimer.Google Scholar
  98. Müller, Werner. 1970. Glauben und Denken der Sioux. Zur Gestalt archaischer Weltbilder. Berlin: Reimer.Google Scholar
  99. Müller, Werner. 1982. Amerika - die Neue oder die Alte Welt? Berlin: Reimer.Google Scholar
  100. Naumann, Nelly. 1971. Das Umwandeln des Himmelspfeilers: ein japanischer Mythos und seine kulturhistorische Einordnung (Asian Folklore Studies 5). Tokyo.Google Scholar
  101. Nabokov, Peter and Robert Easton. 1989. Native American Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Needham, Joseph, et al. 1980. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Nooy-palm, Hetty. 2001. The Ancestral House of the Sa’dan Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pp. 145-169 in: Architectural Anthropology, Mari-Jose Merlinck, ed. Westport/London: Bergin & Garvey.Google Scholar
  104. O’brien, William. 2002. Megaliths in a Mythologized Lanscape. South-west Ireland in the Iron Age. Pp. 153-176 in: Monuments and Landscape in Atlantic Europe. Perception and Society during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, Chris Scarre, ed. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  105. Oetelaar, Gerald A. 2000. Beyond Activity Areas: Structure and Symbolism in the Organization and Use of Space Inside Tipis. The Plains Anthropologist 45, 171: 35-61.Google Scholar
  106. Ohnuki-tierney, Emiko. 1972. Spatial Concepts of the Ainu of the Northwest Coast of Southern Sakhalin. American Anthropologist New Series 74, 3: 426-457.Google Scholar
  107. Onasch, Konrad. 1979. Lichthöhle und Sternenhaus. Licht und Materie im spätantik-christlichen und frühbyzantinischen Sakralbau. Dresden: Verlag der Kunst Dresden.Google Scholar
  108. Painton, Cowen. 1979. Die Rosenfenster der gotischen Kathedralen. Freiburg, Basel, Vienna: Herder.Google Scholar
  109. Pandya, Vishvajit. 1990. Movement and Space: Andamanese Cartography. American Ethnologist 17, 4: 775-797.Google Scholar
  110. Parpola, Asko. 1985. The Sky-Garment. A study of the Harrapan religion and its relation to the Mesopotamian and later Indian religions (Studia Orientalia 57). Helsinki: Finnish Oriental Society.Google Scholar
  111. Pásztor, Emilia. 2005. Sunshine in Bell Beaker’s Houses: On the Orientation of the Houses of the Bell Beaker-Csepel Group. Pp. 116-123 in: Lights and Shadows in Cultural Astronomy, M. P. Zedda and J. A. Belmonte, eds. Isili: Associazione Archeofila Sara.Google Scholar
  112. Paul, Robert A. 1976. The Sherpa Temple as a Model of the Psyche. American Ethnologist 3, 1: 131-146.Google Scholar
  113. Penprase, Bryan E. 2010. The Power of Stars. How Celestial Observations Have Shaped Human Civilization. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  114. Pevsner, Nikolaus, Hugh Honour and John Fleming. 1999. Lexikon der Weltarchitektur. Munich, New York, London: Prestel.Google Scholar
  115. Plessner, Helmuth. 1975. Die Stufen des Organischen und der Mensch, 3rd ed. Berlin/ New York: Gruyter.Google Scholar
  116. Preston blier, Suzanne. 1981. The Dance of Death: Notes on the Architecture and Staging of Tamberma Funeral. Anthropology and Aesthetics 2: 107-143Google Scholar
  117. Preston blier, Suzanne. 1999. Non-Western Sacred Sites: African Models. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 58, 3: 424-433Google Scholar
  118. Preston blier, Suzanne.1976. Fulani-Hausa Architecture. African Arts 10, 1: 8-19, 97-98.Google Scholar
  119. Pugh, Timothy W. 2003. The Exemplary Center of the Late Postclassic Kowoj Maya. Latin American Antiquity 14, 4: 408-430.Google Scholar
  120. Rabuzzi, Kathryn Allen. 1987. Home. P. 4105 in: Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd ed. Macmillan Reference USA.Google Scholar
  121. Radovanović Ivana. 2000. Houses and Burials at Lepenski Vir. European Journal of Archaeology 3, 3: 330-349.Google Scholar
  122. Rappenglück, Barbara. 2004. The material of the solid sky and its traces in cultures. In: The Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena, Nicholas Campion, ed. (Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on the Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena, Magdalen College, Oxford, 3-9 August 2003). Culture and Cosmos 8, 1-2: 321-331.Google Scholar
  123. Rappenglück, Michael A. 1995. Lepenksi Vir vor 7000 Jahren: Messen mit Schnur und Stab. Pp. 8-10 in Zur Geschichte des Vermessungswesens (VDV-Schriftenreihe, Der Vermessungsingenieur in der Praxis; 8), D. Klemp and H.-J. Lagoda, eds. Wiesbaden: Chmielorz.Google Scholar
  124. Rappenglück, Michael A. 1999. Eine Himmelskarte aus der Eiszeit? Ein Beitrag zur Urgeschichte der Himmelskunde und zur paläoastronomischen Methodik, aufgezeigt am Beispiel der Szene im Le Puits, Grotte de Lascaux (Com. Montignac, Dép. Dordogne, Rég. Aquitaine, France), Munich: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  125. Rappenglück, Michael A. 2005a. The Pivot of the Cosmos: The Concepts of the World Axis across Cultures. In: Cosmic Catastrophes. K)iva, M., Pustylnik, I. and Vesik, L., 160-161. Tartu.Google Scholar
  126. Rappenglück, Michael A. 2005b. Cave and Cosmos, a Geotopic Model of the World in Ancient Cultures. Pp. 241-249 in: Lights and Shadows in Cultural Astronomy, M. P. Zedda and J. A. Belmonte, eds. Isili: Associazione Archeofila Sara.Google Scholar
  127. Rappenglück, Michael A. 2006. The whole world put between to shells: The cosmic symbolism of tortoises and turtles. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 4, 3: 221-228.Google Scholar
  128. Rappenglück, Michael A. 2007. Copying the cosmos: The archaic concepts of the cave across cultures. In: Signaturen des Lebens: Bilder und Zeichen von Kosmos und Bios und Symbole des Alltags –Alltag der Symbole (= Symbolon NF 16), Jung, H. and Rappenglück, M.A., eds., Frankfurt a. Main: Peter LangGoogle Scholar
  129. Rappenglück, Michael A. 2008. The "Domestication" the World into a House and a Home: Cosmographic Symbolism as a Basic Expression of the Human Mind. Pp. 21-26 in Cognitive Archaeology as Symbolic Archaeology, Fernando Coimbra and George Dimitriades, eds. UISPP, Proceedings of the XV World Congress 23, BAR International Series 1737.Google Scholar
  130. Rappenglück, Michael A. 2009. Constructing Worlds, Cosmovisions as Integral Parts of Human Ecosystems. Pp. 107-115 in Cosmology across Cultures (= ASP Conference Series, vol. 409), José Alberto Rubifio-Martin, et al, eds. San Francisco.Google Scholar
  131. Rappenglück, Michael A. 2012. Weltgehäuse, Zur kosmographischen Symbolik von Höhle, Heiligtum und Haus. In: Symbolon XIX (Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel und Jung, Hermann, eds.).Google Scholar
  132. Rasmussen, Susan. 1996. The Tent as Cultural Symbol and Field Site: Social and Symbolic Space, ‘Topos’, and Authority in a Tuareg Community. Anthropological Quarterly 69, 1: 14-26.Google Scholar
  133. Rawson, Jessica. 1999. The Eternal Palaces of the Western Han: A New View of the Universe. Artibus Asiae 59, 1-2: 5-58.Google Scholar
  134. Ray, Benjamin. 1977. Sacred Space and Royal Shrines in Buganda. History of Religions 16, 4: 363-373Google Scholar
  135. Reichel, Elisabeth. 1998. Die öko-Politik im Schamanismus der Yukuna und Tanimuka vom nordwestlichen Amazonas. Pp. 25-95 in Schamanische Wissenschaften. ökologie, Naturwissenschaft und Kunst. Franz-Theo Gottwald and Christian Rätsch, eds. Munich: Eugen Diederichs Verlag.Google Scholar
  136. Reichel-dolmatoff, Gerardo. 1978. The Loom of Life: A Kogi Principle of Integration. Journal of Latin American Lore 4, 1: 5-27.Google Scholar
  137. Reichel-dolmatoff, Gerardo. 1982. Astronomical Models of Social behaviour among Some Indians of Columbia. Pp. 165-181 in Ethnoastronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics, A. F. Aveni and G. Urton, eds. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  138. Reichelt, Hans. 1913. Der steinerne Himmel. Indogermanische Forschungen 32: 23-57.Google Scholar
  139. Richards, Colin. 1996. Life is not that simple: architecture and cosmology in the Balinese house. Pp. 173-184 in: Neolithic Houses in Northwest Europe and Beyond, T. C. Darvill and J. Thomas, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 1996.Google Scholar
  140. Richards, Colin. 1996. Monuments as Landscape: Creating the Centre of the World in Late Neolithic Orkney. World Archaeology 28, 2: 190-208.Google Scholar
  141. Rist, Stephan, Juan SAN MARTIN and Nelson TAPIA. 1999. Andean cosmovision and self-sustained development. Pp. 144-156 in Food for Thought: Ancient Visions and New Experiments of Rural People, B. Haverkort and W. Hiemstraeds, eds. London: Zed Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  142. Roe, Peter G. 1982. The Cosmic Zygote: Cosmology in the Amazon Basin. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich D. 1913. Omphalos. Eine philologisch-archäologisch-volkskundliche Abhandlung über die Vorstellungen der Griechen und anderer Völker vom Nabel der Erde’. Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch-historische Klasse 29, 9. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  144. Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich D. 1918. Der Omphalosgedanke bei verschiedenen Völkern, besonders den semitischen. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Religionswissenschaft, Volkskunde und Archäologie. Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch- Historische Klasse 70, 2. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  145. Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich D. 1919. Neue Omphalosstudien. Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch-Historische Klasse 71, 1. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  146. Ruggles, Clive. 1999. Astronomy in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Sack, Robert David. 1976. Magic and Space. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 66, 2: 309-322.Google Scholar
  148. Salokoski, Märta. 2006. How Kings are Made –How Kingship Changes. A Study of Rituals and Ritual Change in Pre-Colonial and Colonial Owamboland Namibia. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Helsinki.Google Scholar
  149. Schmandt-besserat, Denise. 1980. Ochre in Prehistory: 300,000 Years of the Use of Iron Ores as Pigments. Pp. 127-150 in The Coming of the Age of Iron, Th. A. Wertime and J. D.Muhly, eds. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  150. Schmidt, Volker. 2001. Tierische und menschliche Bauopfer bei den Nordwestslawen. Studia Mythologica Slavica IV: 25–34.Google Scholar
  151. Schroeter, Willy. 1998. Indianische Wohnformen. Vom Tipi zum Pueblo. Vom Wickiup zum Hogan. Vom Langhaus zur Earth Lodge. Wyk auf Föhr: Verlag für Amerikanistik.Google Scholar
  152. Selin, Helaine. 2007. Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures, 2nd ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.Google Scholar
  153. Shafer, Harry J. 1995. Architecture and Symbolism in Transitional Pueblo Development in the Mimbres Valley, SW, New Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 22, 1: 23-47.Google Scholar
  154. Shore, Bradd. 1982. Sala’ilua: A Samoan Mystery. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Shiner, Larry E. 1972. Sacred Space, Profane Space, Human Space. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 40, 4: 425-436.Google Scholar
  156. Singh, Rana P.B and John McKim MALVILLE. 2009. Cosmic Order and Cultural Astronomy:Sacred Cities of India. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publisher.Google Scholar
  157. Singh, Jai Pal and Mumtaz KHAN. 1999. Hindu Cosmology and the Orientation and Segregation of Social Groups in Villages in Northwestern India. Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography 81, 1: 19-39.Google Scholar
  158. Singer, S.J. and Nicolson, Garth L.: The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes. Science 175 (4023), 1972: 720–731.Google Scholar
  159. Sofaer, Anna. 1997. The Primary Architecture of the Chacoan Culture: A Cosmological Expression. Anasazi Architecture and American Design. Baker H. Morrow and V. B. Price, eds. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  160. Snedegar, Keith. 2000. Astronomical Practices in Africa South of the Sahara. Pp. 455-473 in Astronomy across Cultures, H. Selin, ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  161. Snodgrass, Adrian. 1985. The Symbolism of the Stupa. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University.Google Scholar
  162. Snodgrass, Adrian. 1990. Architecture, Time and Eternity: A Studies in the Stellar and Temporal Symbolism of Traditional Buildings. Sata-Pitaka Series vol. 356-357. South Asia Books.Google Scholar
  163. Šprajc, Ivan. 2005. More on Mesoamerican Cosmology and City Plans. Latin American Antiquity 16, 2: 209-216.Google Scholar
  164. Stahl, Peter W. 1985. Native American Cosmology in Archaeological Interpretation: Tropical Forest Cosmology and Early Valdivia Phase at Lomo Alta. Pp. 31-37 in Status, Structure and Stratification: Current Archaeological Reconstruction, M. Thompson, M. T. Garcia and F. Kense, eds. Calgary: University of Calgary Archaeological Association.Google Scholar
  165. Staudacher, Willibald. 1968. Die Trennung von Himmel und Erde: Ein vorgriechischer Schöpfungsmythus bei Hesiod und den Orphikern. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  166. Stein Rolf A. 1987. Le monde en petit: jardins en miniature et habitations dans la pensée religieuse d’Extreme-Orient. Paris: Flammarion.Google Scholar
  167. Stross, Brian. 1996. The Mesoamerican Cosmic Portal: An Early Zapotec Example. Anthropology and Aesthetics 29/30: 82-101.Google Scholar
  168. Stuart, David. 1998. The Fire Enters His House. Architecture and Ritual in Classic Maya Texts. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.Google Scholar
  169. Stübe, R. 1987. Bauopfer. Secs. 962-966 in Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens, H. Bächtold-Stäubli and E. Hoffmann-Krayer, eds. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  170. Sugiyama, Saburo. 1993. Worldview Materialized in Teotihuacan, Mexico. Latin American Antiquity 4, 2: 103-129.Google Scholar
  171. Tan, Roger Y. D. 1967. The Domestic Architecture of South Bali. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Landen Volkenkunde 123, 4: 442-475.Google Scholar
  172. Taylor, Christopher. 1993. Milk, Honey and Money. Washington, DC: Smithsonian.Google Scholar
  173. Taube, Karl. 1998. The Jade Hearth: Centrality, Rulership, and the Classic Maya Temple. Pp. 427-478 in: Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, S. D. Houston, ed. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library.Google Scholar
  174. Tilley, Christopher Y. 2000. Metaphor and Material Culture (Social Archaeology). London: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  175. Traube, Elizabeth G. 1986. Cosmology and Social Life. Ritual Exchange among the Mambai of East Timor. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  176. Trejo, Jesus Galindo. 2009. Mesoamerican Cosmology: Recent Finds. Pp. 255-256 in: Cosmology Across Cultures (ASP Conferences Series 409). J. A. Rubiño-Martin, J. A. Belmonte, F. Prada and A. Alberdi, eds. San Francisco.Google Scholar
  177. Turner, Terence. 1993. From Cosmology to Ideology: Resistance, Adaption and Social Consciousness among the Kayapo. In: Cosmology, Values, and Inter-Ethnic Contact in South America, Terence Turner, ed. South American Indian Studies 2. Bennington: Bennington College.Google Scholar
  178. Vastokas, Joan M. 1969. Architecture and Environment: The Importance of the Forest to the Northwest Coast Indian. Forest History 13, 3: 12-21.Google Scholar
  179. Wang, Eugene Y. 1999. What Do Trigrams Have to Do with Buddhas? The Northern Liang Stupas as a Hybrid Spatial Model. Anthropology and Aesthetics 35: 70-91.Google Scholar
  180. Waterson, Roxana. 1988. The House and the World: The Symbolism of Sa’Dan Toraja House Carvings. Journal of Anthropology and Aesthetics 15: 34-60.Google Scholar
  181. Weaver, Jace and Laura Weaver Adams. 2007. Indigenous Migrations, Pilgrimage Trails, and Sacred Geography. Pp. 335-355 in: Cave, City, and Eagle’s Nest. An Interpretive Journey through the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2, D. Carrasco and S. Sessions, eds. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  182. Welchman-gegeo, David and Karen Ann watson-gegeo. 2001. Villagers Doing Indigenous Epistemology. The Contemporary Pacific 13, 1: 68-69.Google Scholar
  183. Wendell, Charles. 1971. Baghdad: Imago Mundi, and Other Foundation-Lore. International Journal of Middle East Studies 2, 2: 99-128.Google Scholar
  184. Werness, Hope B. 2003. The Continuum Encyclopedia of Native Art. Worldview, Symbolism & Culture in Africa, Oceania & Native North America. New York, London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  185. Wesley, Richard. 1998. The Idea of a House. Anthropology and Aesthetics 34: 118-127.Google Scholar
  186. Weyersberg, Maria. 1961. Das Motiv der Himmelsstütze’ in der altägyptischen Kosmologie. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 86, 1: 113-140.Google Scholar
  187. Wheatley, Paul. 1971. The Pivot of the four quarters, A preliminary enquiry into the origins and character of the ancient Chinese City. Edinburg: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  188. Whitehead, N. L. 1998. Indigenous Cartography in Lowland South America and the Caribbean. Pp. 301-326 in: The History of Cartography, vol. 2, D. Woodward and G. M. Lewis, eds.Chicago and London: University Of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  189. Whitridge, Peter. 2004. Landscapes, Houses, Bodies, Things: ’Place’ and the Archaeology of Inuit Imaginaries. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 11, 2: 213-250.Google Scholar
  190. Wilbert, Johannes. 1981. Warao Cosmology and Yekuana Roundhouse Symbolism. Journal of Latin American Lore 7: 37-72.Google Scholar
  191. Wilson, Peter J. 1988. The Domestication of the Human Species. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  192. Zedda, Mauro Peppino. 2005. When astronomical meaning goes beyond orientation and becomes architectural design. Pp. 31-38 in: Lights and Shadows in Cultural Astronomy, M. P. Zedda and J. A. Belmonte, eds. Isili: Associazione Archeofila Sara.Google Scholar
  193. Zuidema, R. Tom. 1993. The Social and Cosmological Replication of the Upriver-Downriver Dichotomy in Incaic Cuzco. South American Studies 2: 63-66.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kim Williams Books, Turin 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Adult Education Centre and Observatory GilchingGilchingGermany

Personalised recommendations