A testing cascade for the detection of genetically modified rice by real-time PCR in food and its application for detection of an unauthorized rice line similar to KeFeng6

  • Ralf ReitingEmail author
  • Lutz Grohmann
  • Dietrich Mäde

Programs for the development of genetically modified (GM) rice as the main staple food for a large segment of the world population are presently ongoing in several parts of the world (Cao et al. 1992; Ignacimuthu et al. 2000; Ye et al. 2000; Datta 2004; Zhang 2007). Although GM rice varieties are already authorized in some countries, no large scale cultivation is reported presently. In the United States, the rice lines LLRICE62 and LLRICE601 are deregulated. There are also reports that a local variety of Bt rice is cultivated on a smaller scale in Iran (James 2005; Sawahel 2005) but this cannot be verified.

In China, GM rice events with insect resistance, disease resistance and quality improvement have been approved for field testing (Wang and Johnston 2007a, b). The final stage of these field tests are production trials which might cover an area up to 13 ha with an isolation distance of 100 m (Anonymus 2009). At present, several GM rice lines are in the process for authorisation for...


  1. Akiyama H, Sasaki N, Sakata K, Ohmori K, Toyota A, Kikuchi Y, Watanabe T, Furui S, Kitta K, Maitani T (2007) Indicated detection of two unapproved transgenic rice lines contaminating vermicelli products. J Agric Food Chem 55:5942–5947CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymus (2006a) Event-specific method for the quantification of rice line LLRICE62 using real-time PCR. Protocol.
  3. Anonymus (2006b) Grain testing method for detection of rice GM event LLRICE601 using RT-PCR protocols PGS0505 and PGS0476 developed by Bayer Crop Science.
  4. Anonymus (2009) Inspection report DG/SANCO 2008-7834–MR-FINAL.
  5. Babekova R, Funk T, Pecoraro S, Engel K-H, Baikova D, Busch U (2008) Duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of cryIA(b) and the maize ubiquitin promotor in the transgenic rice line KMD1. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 22:705–708Google Scholar
  6. Cao J, Duan X, McElroy D, Wu R (1992) Regeneration of herbicide resistant transgenic rice plants following microprojectile-mediated transformation of suspension culture cells. Plant Cell Rep 11:586–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng X, Sardana R, Kaplan H, Altosaar I (1998) Agrobacterium transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stam borer. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 95:2767–2772CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Commission Decision of 3 April 2008 on emergency measures regarding the unauthorised genetically modified organism ‘Bt63’ in rice products (2008/289/EC). Offcial J EU 96:29–34Google Scholar
  9. Datta SK (2004) Rice biotechnology: a need for developing countries. AgBioForum 7:31–35Google Scholar
  10. Hernandez M, Esteve T, Pla M (2005) Real-time polymerase chain reaction based assays for quantitative detection of barley, rice, sunflower, and wheat. J Agric Food Chem 53:7003–7009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Huang J, Hu R, Rozelle S, Pray C (2008) Genetically modified rice, yields, and pesticides: assessing farm-level productivity effects in China.
  12. Ignacimuthu S, Arockiasamy S, Terada R (2000) Genetic transformation of rice: current status and future prospects. Curr Sci 79:186–195Google Scholar
  13. ISO 21570 (2005) Foodstuffs—methods of analysis for the detection of genetically modified organisms and derived products—quantitative nucleic acid based methods. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  14. James C (2005) Global status of commercialized Biotech/GM crops.
  15. Mäde D, Degner C, Grohmann L (2006) Detection of genetically modified rice: a construct-specific real-time PCR method based on DNA sequences from transgenic Bt rice. Eur Food Res Technol 224:271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Official Collection of Test Methods (2008) Specific detection of a frequently used DNA sequence from genetically modified organisms (GMO) derived from the bar-gene of Streptomyces hygroscopicus in foodstuffs-screening method. German food and feed law—food analysis, article 64, L 00.00-124, Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  17. Qiu J (2008) Keeping bollworm from the door.
  18. Rong J, Song Z, Su J, Xia H, Lu B-R, Wang F (2005) Low frequency of transgene flow from Bt/CpTI rice to its nontransgenic counterparts planted at close spacing. New Phytol 168:559–566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rong J, Lu B-R, Song Z, Su J, Snow AA, Zhang X, Sun S, Chen R, Wang F (2007) Dramatic reduction of crop-to-crop gene flow within a short distance from transgenic rice fields. New Phytol 173:346–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Sawahel W (2005) Iranian Scientists produce country’s first GM rice.
  21. Waiblinger H-U, Grohmann L, Mankertz J, Engelbert D, Pietsch K (2009) A practical approach to screen for authorised and unauthorised genetically modified plants. Anal Bioanal Chem. doi: 10.1007/s00216-009-3173-2 (online first)
  22. Wang Y, Johnston S (2007a) The status of GM rice R&D in China. Nat Biotechnol 25:717–718CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang Y, Johnston S (2007b) Review on GM rice risk assessment in China. UNU-IAS Working Paper No. 152.
  24. Wu G, Cui H, Ye G, Xia Y, Sardana R, Cheng X, Li Y, Altosaar I, Shu Q (2002) Inheritance and expression of the cry1Ab gene in Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) transgenic rice. Theor Appl Genet 104:727–734CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Wu W, Ye Q, Min H, Duan X, Jin W (2003) Bt-transgenic rice straw affects the culturable microbiota and dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities in a flooded paddy soil. Soil Biol Biochem 36:289–295Google Scholar
  26. Ye X, Al-Babili S, Klöti A, Zhang J, Lucca P, Beyer P, Potrykus I (2000) Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science 287:303–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang Q (2007) Strategies for developing green super rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16042–16409Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hessisches LandeslaborKasselGermany
  2. 2.Bundesinstitut für Verbraucherschutz und LebensmittelsicherheitBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Landesamt für VerbraucherschutzHalle (Saale)Germany

Personalised recommendations