Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 318–324 | Cite as

Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenileLitopenaeus vannamei



A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 °C, 27°C and 32°C) and dietary carbohydrate (CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenileLitopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietaryCBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15%CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47%CBH, and those with 41.00%CBH had the lowest value.

Key words

Litopenaeus vannamei water temperature carbohydrate growth energy budget 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alava, V. R. and F. P. Pascual, 1987. Carbohydrate requirements ofP. monodon (Fabricius) juveniles.Aquaculture 61: 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali, S. A., 1982. Effect of carbohydrate (starch) level in purified diets on the growth ofP. indicus.Indian Journal of Fisheries 29: 201–208.Google Scholar
  3. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) 1995. Official methods of analysis of official analytical chemists international, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  4. Cai, Y. X. and S. Z. Chen, 1995. The prawns and crayfishes introduced to China.Sinozoologia 12: 170–179.Google Scholar
  5. Cui, Y. B., S. L. Chen and S. M. Wang, 1995. Effect of temperature on the energy budget of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idellus Val.Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 26(2): 169–174. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  6. Cuzon, G., A. Lawrence, G. Gaxiola, C. Rosas and J. Guillaume, 2004. Nutrition ofLitopenaeus vannamei reared in tanks or in ponds.Aquacuture 235: 513–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dai, X. Q., Y. Xiao and J. Dong, 1998. Effects of temperature and salinity to energy budget ofLateolabrax japonicus.Journal of Shanghai Fisheries University 7(1): 1–7.Google Scholar
  8. Dong, S. L., N. S. Du and W. Lal, 1994. Studies on the physio-ecology ofMacrobrachium nipponense II. Effect of temperature and body weight on energy budget.Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 25(3): 238–242. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  9. Hu, A. S., 1958. Glucose metabolism in the crab,Hemigrapsus mudus. Archs Biochem.Biophys. 75: 387–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jiang, D. H., H. N. William and H. Gong, 2000. Effects of temperature and salinity on nitrogenous excretion byLitopenaeus vannamei juveniles.J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 253: 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Levine, D. M. and S. D. Sulkin, 1979. Partitioning and utilization of energy during the larval development of the xanthid crab,Rithropanopeus harrisii (Gould).J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 40: 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Omondi, J. G. and J. R. Stark, 1995. Some digestive carbohydrases from the midgut gland ofPenaeus indicus andPenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae).Aquaculture 134: 121–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ponce-Palafox, J., C. A. Martinez-Palacios and L. G. Ross, 1997. The effects of salinity and temperature on the growth and survival rates of juvenile white shrimp,Penaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931.Aquaculture 157: 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rosas, C., G. Cuzon, G. Taboada, C. Pascual, G. Gaxiola, A. C. van Wormhoudt, 2001. Effect of dietary protein and energy levels on growth, oxygen consumption, haemolymph and digestive gland carbohydrates, nitrogen excretion and osmotic pressure ofLitopenaeus vannamei (Boone) andL. setiferus (Linne) juveniles (Crustacca, Decapoda; Penaeidae).Aquaculture Research 32(7): 531–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Villarreal, H., P. Hinojosa and J. Naranjo, 1994. Effect of temperature and salinity on the oxygen consumption of laboratory producedPenaeus vannamei postlarvae. Comp.Biochem. Physiol. 108A: 331–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wyban, J., W. A. Walsh and D. M. Godin, 1995. Temperature effects on growth, feeding rate and feed conversion of the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).Aquaculture 138(1–4): 267–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zhang, S., S. L. Dong and F. Wang, 1998. Studies on the bioenergetics ofPenaeus chinensis, II. Effects of temperature and body weight on energy budget.Journal of Ocean University of Qingdao 28(2): 228–232.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Jiangsu ProvinceHuaihai Institute of TechnologyLianyungangChina
  2. 2.Mariculture Research Laboratory, Fisheries CollegeOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations