Prevalence and outcome of intracranial haemorrhage in haemophiliacs – a survey of the paediatric group of the German Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH)
A survey among centres of the paediatric group of the GTH was performed to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of haemophiliacs with intracerebral haemorrhage. A questionnaire sent to the centres covered the following points: number of patients with severe, moderate and mild haemophilia A and B; for each patient with ICH: birth date, age at bleeding, aetiology and neurological sequelae. Overall, 30 ICH in 744 haemophiliacs (4.0%) were reported by 17/40 centres (42.5%). There was no significant difference between the prevalence of patients with haemophilia A and B (3.5% vs. 6.3%) and among the age groups. Bleeding was diagnosed within 1 week of birth in 11/27 patients (41%). For 3 patients, no age-related information was given. The most important factor was trauma (17/30 = 57%), either during birth (9/30 = 30%) or later in life (8/30 = 27%). Seizures were common, occurring in 19/30 patients (63%). As 1 patient died after posttraumatic ICH, the neurological outcome of 29 patients could be evaluated. Psychomotor and statomotor retardation and cerebral palsy were reported in 17/29 (59%), 15/29 (51%) and 13/29 (45%) patients respectively. Only 7/29 (24%) showed no neurological sequelae. Severity of deficits was not correlated with birth date but to age at bleeding. Older children showed a better neurological outcome than neonates.
Conclusion The frequency and outcome of ICH in haemophiliacs have not changed in our cohort over the past 20 years. Trauma at birth is an important risk factor for ICH in patients with haemophilia A or B. lntracranial haemorrhages in older children are rare, and a better outcome may be expected.