Clinical aspects of cystathionine β-synthase deficiency: how wide is the spectrum?
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Homocystinuria due to cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease of sulphur amino acid metabolism. Major clinical manifestations include disorders of the eye, the skeleton, the central nervous system and the vascular system. A wide clinical spectrum of the disease has been reported. We discuss the role of genetic factors (e.g. different mutations of the CBS gene and a variable genetic background) and the importance of environmental factors (e.g. diet, vitamins, perinatal factors and drugs) in explaining the phenotypic variability observed in homocystinuria.
Conclusion Homocystinuria represents a good model to explain the clinical differences frequently observed among patients affected by monogenic diseases.