Flowering Phenology, Pollination, and Fruit Set of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense, a Threatened Lady's Slipper (Orchidaceae)
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var. rebunense, was preliminarily studied on Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan, for conservation of this threatened orchid. The functional longevity of individual flowers varied from 0 to 18 days, a determining factor being the wind conditions at the growing sites. The flower was self-compatible but needed a pollen vector for fruit production. It lacked nectar and adopted a deceptive pollination system. Queens of a bumblebee, Bombus pseudo-baicalensis, were found to be pollinators but their visits were infrequent. Fruit set was 8.3% at one study site but only 1.2% at another, probably due to interference from the many visitors who came to see the flowers. Based on the results, conservation and management of lady's slipper were discussed. The need for less human interference and for preservation of the interactions between lady's slipper and its pollinator or other plant species with floral rewards is stressed.
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