A global positioning system (GPS)-based online control and alarm system (GOCA) for monitoring of three-dimensional movements has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Technology. The GOCA hardware consists of an array of GPS sensors and communication units to be placed in the monitoring area. The hardware-dependent control software communicates with the GPS sensors and provides the GPS baseline data and covariance information to the GOCA deformation analysis software. The GOCA center, which comprises both the control software and the GOCA software, may be linked – for example, over a long distance – to another personal computer (PC) that serves as a remote control station. GOCA is able to provide the full capabilities of classical deformation analysis online (with stations grouped into stable points and moving object points). Both types of points may be occupied either continuously or over short periods at different times. The object points are determined with respect to the stable points. A network adjustment is performed for each interval of data collection, and the coordinate and covariance information may optionally be transformed into a specific reference system (e. g., the building system). Unstable reference points are to be detected by statistical tests. The estimated object point time series are filtered with respect to gross errors using robust estimation techniques. Online filters are used to smooth the time series data of critical displacements and to predict other deformation functions. The time series data, as well as prediction results, are displayed graphically for each object point. An example concerning the online monitoring of a slag heap in a coal-mining area is included. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
KeywordsGlobal Position System Global Position System Time Series Data Deformation Analysis Object Point
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